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Knowing Your Options
Tips for Handling Pesticides
Determining Correct Dosage
Correct Storage and Disposal
How to Choose a Pest Control Company
How to Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides
"Someone's Been Poisoned, Help"

Knowing Your Options


     THEY'RE THERE. Whether you see them or not, you know

they're there--in your home, your vegetable garden, your lawn,

your fruit and shade trees, your flowers, and on your pets.

They are pests--insects, weeds, fungi, rodents, and others.


     American households and their surrounding grounds are

frequent hosts to common structural pests (termites,

cockroaches, fleas, rodents), as well as a wide array of pests

that are usually associated with agriculture. Because pests are

all around--sometimes creating a nuisance but sometimes causing

severe financial loss--consumers have turned increasingly to

pesticides to control them. Just as "pests" can be anything

from cockroaches in your kitchen to algae in your swimming

pool, pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides,

rodenticides, disinfectants, and plant growth

regulators--anything that kills or otherwise controls a pest of

any kind.


     The first and most important step in pest control is to

identify the pest. Some pests, or signs of them, are

unmistakable. Others are not. For example, some plant

"diseases" are really indications of insufficient soil



     Three information sources are particularly helpful in

identifying pests and appropriate pest control methods:

reference books (such as insect field guides or gardening

books), the County Extension Service, and pesticide dealers.


     The next step is to decide what level of treatment you

want. Is anyone in the family or neighborhood particularly

sensitive to chemical pesticides? Does your lawn really need to

be totally weed-free? Do you need every fruit, vegetable, or

flower you grow, or could you replace certain pest-prone

species or varieties with hardier substitutes? Will you accept

some blemished produce? In other words, do you need to

eliminate all weeds and insects, or can you tolerate some



     Remember that total pest elimination is virtually

impossible, and trying to eradicate pests from your premises

will lead you to more extensive, repeated chemical treatments

than are required for pest control. Remember, too, that to

manage any pest effectively, you must use each method (or

combination of methods) correctly. Finally, you must also abide

by all pertinent local, state, and federal regulations.



Federal Registration of Pesticides


     The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) "registers"

(licenses) thousands of pesticide products for use in and

around homes. No pesticide may legally be sold or used in the

United States unless its label bears an EPA registration

number. The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

(FIRA), which governs the registration of pesticides, prohibits

the use of any pesticide product in a manner that is

inconsistent with the product labeling.



     There is another important question to ask in making pest

control decisions: is there something on your premises that

needlessly invites pest infestations? The answer to this

question may lead you to take some common-sense steps to modify

pest habitat.


   * Remove water sources. All pests, vertebrate or

     invertebrate, need water for survival. Fix leaky plumbing

     and do not let water accumulate anywhere in your home.

     This means no water in trays under your houseplants

     overnight if you have a cockroach infestation.


   * Remove food sources (if the pest's food is anything other

     than the plant or animal you are trying to protect). For

     example, this could mean storing your food in sealed glass

     or plastic containers, avoiding the habit of leaving your

     pet's food out for extended periods of time, and placing

     your refuse in tightly covered, heavy-gauge garbage cans.


   * Remove or destroy pest shelter. Caulk cracks and crevices

     to control cockroaches; remove piles of wood from under or

     around your home in order to avoid attracting termites;


   * Remove and destroy diseased plants, tree prunings, and

     fallen fruit that might harbor pests.


   * Remove breeding sites. The presence of pet manure attracts

     flies, litter encourages rodents, and standing water

     provides a perfect breeding place for mosquitoes.


   * Remove sources of preventable stress to plants (flowers,

     trees, vegetable plants, and turf). Plant at the optimum

     time of year. Use mulch to reduce weed competition and

     maintain even soil temperature and moisture. Provide

     adequate water.

   * Use preventive cultural practices, such as careful

     selection of disease-resistant seed or plant varieties,

     companion planting to exploit the insect-repellent

     properties of certain plants, strategic use of "trap"

     crops to lure pests away from crops you wish to protect,

     crop rotation and diversification, and optimum use of

     spacing. Make sure you have good drainage and soil




Non-chemical Controls

     If you practice preventive techniques such as those

mentioned above, you will reduce your chances, or frequency, of

pest infestation. However, if you already have an infestation,

are there any pest control alternatives besides chemical



     The answer is an emphatic "yes." One or a combination of

several non-chemical treatment alternatives may be appropriate.

Your best strategy depends on the pest and the site where the

pest occurs.


     Non-chemical alternatives include:


   * Biological treatments, including predators such as purple

     martins, praying mantises, and lady bugs; parasites; and

     pathogens such as bacteria, viruses (generally not

     available to homeowners), and other microorganisms like

     Bacillus thuringiensis and milky spore disease.


     There is no way to be certain how long predators will stay

     in target areas. Contact your County Extension Service for

     information about how to protect desirable predators.


   * Mechanical treatments, including cultivating to control

     weeds, hand-picking weeds from turf and pests from plants,

     trapping to control rodents and some insects, and

     screening living space to limit mosquito and fly access.


     Non-chemical pest control methods really work. They do

     have some disadvantages: the results are not immediate,

     and it requires some work to make a home or garden less

     attractive to pests. But the advantages of non-chemical

     methods are many. Compared to chemical pesticide

     treatments, such methods are generally effective for

     longer periods of time. They do not create hardy,

     pesticide-resistant pest populations. And they can be used

     without safeguards, because they pose virtually no hazards

     to human health or the environment.

Chemical Controls

     If you decide that chemical treatment can provide the best

solution to your pest problem, and you want to control the

pests yourself rather than turning the problem over to a

professional pest control operator, then you have an important

decision to make: which product to choose. Before making that

decision, learn as much as you can about a product's active

ingredient--its biologically active agent. Is it

"broad-spectrum" in its mode of action (effective against a

broad range of pests), or is it "selective" (effective against

only a few pest species)? How rapidly does the active

ingredient break down once it is introduced into the

environment? Is it suspected of causing chronic health effects?

Is it toxic to non-target wildlife and house pets? Is it known,

or suspected, to leach through soil into ground water?


     Here again, your County Extension Service, reference

books, pesticide dealers, your state pesticide agency, or your

regional EPA office may be able to provide assistance. (Lists

of State and EPA pesticide contacts are provided at the end of

this booklet.)


     When you have narrowed your choices of active ingredients,

you are ready to select a pesticide product. Choose the least

toxic pesticide that can achieve the results you desire. Read

the label. It lists active ingredients, the target pests (for

example, mites, flies, Japanese beetle grubs, broad-leafed

weeds, algae, etc.), and the sites where the product may be

used (for example, lawns, specific vegetable crops, roses,

swimming pools, etc.). Be sure the site of your pest problem is

included among the sites listed on the label.


     Pesticide active ingredients are formulated in many ways.

Choose the formulation best suited to your site and the pest

you are trying to control. The most common types of home-use

pesticide formulations include:


   * Solutions, which contain the active ingredient and one or

     more additives, and readily mix with water.


   * Aerosols, which contain one or more active ingredients and

     a solvent. They are ready for immediate use as is.


   * Dusts, which contain active ingredients plus a very fine

     dry inert carrier such as clay, talc, or volcanic ash.

     Dusts are ready for immediate use and are applied dry.


   * Granulars, which are similar to dusts, but with larger and

     heavier particles for broadcast applications.


   * Baits, which are active ingredients mixed with food or

     other substances to attract the pest.


   * Wettable powders, which are dry, finely ground

     formulations that generally are mixed with water for spray

     application. Some also may be used as dusts.

     Depending on the type of formulation you choose, you may

need to dilute or mix the product. Prepare only the amount that

you need for each application; don't prepare larger amounts to

store for possible future use. (See "Determining Correct



     Once you have identified the pest, selected the right

pesticide, and determined proper dosage, you are ready to use

the product. Application technique and timing are every bit as

important as the material used, so read the label for

directions. That advice--to read the label--is repeated so

often in this guide that it may become tiresome. But in fact,

the advice cannot be repeated often enough. Read the label

before you buy a product, and again before you mix it, before

you apply it, before you store it, and before you throw it

away. The directions on a label are there for a very good

reason: to help you achieve maximum benefits with minimum risk.

But these benefits depend upon proper use of the products.


     Chemical pesticides also have their disadvantages. They

must be used very carefully to achieve results while protecting

users and the environment. The results are generally temporary,

and repeated treatments may be required.


     Therefore, to achieve best results when you do use

chemical pesticides, use preventive and non-chemical treatments

along with them. This will reduce the need for repeated



     You should always evaluate your pesticide use, comparing

pre-treatment and post-treatment conditions. You should weigh

the benefits of short-term chemical pesticide control against

the benefits of long-term control using a variety of

techniques. Knowledge of a range of pest control techniques

gives you the ability to pick and choose among them. Pests,

unfortunately, will always be around us, and, if you know about

all pest control options, you will know what to do the next




Tips for Handling Pesticides

     Pesticides are not "safe." They are produced specifically

because they are toxic to something. By heeding all the

following tips, you can reduce your risks when you use



   * All pesticides legally marketed in the United States must

     bear an EPA-approved label; check the label to make sure

     it bears an EPA registration number.


   * Before using a pesticide, read the entire label. Even if

     you have used the pesticide before, read the label

     again--don't trust your memory. Use of any pesticide in

     any way that is not consistent with label directions and

     precautions is subject to civil and/or criminal penalties.


   * Do not use a "restricted use" pesticide unless you are a

     formally trained, certified pesticide applicator. These

     products are too dangerous to be used without special



   * Follow use directions carefully. Use only the amount

     directed, at the time and under the conditions specified,

     and for the purpose listed. Don't think that twice the

     dosage will do twice the job. It won't. What's worse, you

     may harm yourself, others, or whatever you are trying to



   * Look for one of the following signal words on the front of

     the label. It will tell you how hazardous a pesticide is

     if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through skin.



           means highly poisonous;



           means moderately hazardous;



           means least hazardous.


   * Wear the items of protective clothing the label requires:

     for example, long sleeves and long pants, impervious

     gloves, rubber (not canvas or leather) footwear, hat, and

     goggles. Personal protective clothing usually is available

     at home building supply stores.


   * If you must mix or dilute the pesticide, do so outdoors or

     in a well-ventilated area. Mix only the amount you need

     and use portions listed on the label.


   * Keep children and pets away from areas where you mix or

     apply pesticides.


   * If a spill occurs, clean it up promptly. Don't wash it

     away. Instead, sprinkle with sawdust, vermiculite, or

     kitty litter; sweep into a plastic garbage bag; and

     dispose with the rest of your trash.


   * Remove pets (including birds and fish) and toys from the

     area to be treated. Remove food, dishes, pots, and pans

     before treating kitchen cabinets, and don't let pesticides

     get on these surfaces. Wait until shelves dry before

     refilling them.


   * Allow adequate ventilation when applying pesticides

     indoors. Go away from treated areas for at least the

     length of time prescribed by the label. When spraying

     outdoors, close the windows of your home.


   * Most surface sprays should be applied only to limited

     areas; don't treat entire floors, walls, or ceilings.


   * Never place rodent or insect baits where small children or

     pets can reach them.


   * When applying spray or dust outdoors, cover fish ponds,

     and avoid applying pesticides near wells. Always avoid

     over-application when treating lawn, shrubs, or gardens.

     Runoff or seepage from excess pesticide usage may

     contaminate water supplies. Excess spray may leave harmful

     residues on home-grown produce.


   * Keep herbicides away from non-target plants. Avoid

     applying any pesticide to blooming plants, especially if

     you see honeybees or other pollinating insects around

     them. Avoid birds' nests when spraying trees.


   * Never spray or dust outdoors on a windy day.


   * Never smoke while applying pesticides. You could easily

     carry traces of the pesticide from hand to mouth. Also,

     some products are flammable.


   * Never transfer pesticides to containers not intended for

     them, such as empty soft drink bottles. Keep pesticides in

     containers that clearly and prominently identify the

     contents. Properly refasten all childproof caps.


   * Shower and shampoo thoroughly after using a pesticide

     product. Wash the clothing that you wore when applying the

     product separately from the family laundry. To prevent

     tracking chemicals inside, also rinse boots and shoes

     before entering your home.


   * Before using a pesticide product, know what to do in case

     of accidental poisoning.


   * To remove residues, use a bucket to triple rinse tools or

     equipment, including any containers or utensils used to

     mix the chemicals. Then pour the rinse water into the

     pesticide container and reuse the solution by applying it

     according to the pesticide product label directions.


   * Evaluate the results of your pesticide use.



Determining Correct Dosage

     So much information is packed onto pesticide labels that

there is usually no room to include examples of each dilution

applicable to the multitude of home-use situations. As a

result, label examples may inadvertently encourage preparation

of more pesticide than is needed. The excess may contribute to

overuse, safety problems related to storage and disposal, or

simply wasted costs of unused pesticide.


     Determining the correct dosage for different types of

pesticides requires some simple calculations. The following

information can help you to prepare the minimum quantity of

pesticide needed for your immediate use situation.


     For example, the product label says, "For the control of

aphids on tomatoes, mix 8 fluid ounces of pesticide into 1

gallon water and spray until foliage is wet." Your experience

has been that your six tomato plants require only one quart of

pesticide to wet all the foliage. Therefore, only 2 fluid

ounces of the pesticide should be mixed into 1 quart of water.

Why? Because a quart is one-fourth of a gallon, and 2 fluid

ounces mixed into 1 quart make the same strength spray

recommended by the label, but in a quantity that can be used up

all at once.


     Consumers can solve problems similar to this one with

careful arithmetic, good measurements, and intelligent use of

the information provided here.



How to Measure

     If you need to determine the size of a square or

rectangular area, such as a lawn for herbicide application,

measure and multiply the length and width. For example, an area

10 feet long by 8 feet wide contains 80 square feet. Common

area measurements may involve square yards (1 square yard = 9

square feet) or square feet (1 square foot = 144 square



     If you need to determine the volume of a space such as a

room, measure and multiply the room's length, width, and

height. For example, a space 10 feet long, 8 feet wide, and 8

feet high contains a volume of 640 cubic feet. You would use

this procedure, for instance, for an aerosol release to control



     Most residential-use pesticides are measured in terms of

volume. Some common equivalents are:


1 gallon (gal.) = 128 fluid ounces (ft. oz.)

                = 4 quarts (qt.)

                = 8 pints (pt.)

                = 16 cups

          1 qt. = 32 ft. oz.

                = 2 pt.

                = 4 cups


          1 pt. = 16 ft. oz.

                = 2 cups

          1 cup = 8 ft. oz.

   1 tablespoon = 1/2 fl. oz.

               = 3 teaspoons

     1 teaspoon = 1/8 ft. oz.


     In measuring teaspoons or tablespoons of pesticide, use

only level spoonfuls, and never use the same measuring devices

for food preparation.


     The following table provides examples to help you convert

label information to your specific use situations. "Amount" can

be any measure of pesticide quantity. However, the same unit of

measure must be used on both sides of the chart. For example, 8

fluid ounces per gallon of water is equivalent to 2 fluid

ounces per quart of water.


     Not all dosage rates are included in the examples given

here. For rates not included, remember that, for pesticides not

diluted with water, proportionally change both the quantity of

pesticide and the area, volume, or number of items treated. For

example, one-half pound per 1,000 square feet is equivalent to

one-quarter pound per 500 square feet. For a pesticide that is

diluted with water, proportionally change the quantity of

pesticide, the quantity of water, and the area, volume, or

number of items treated. For example, one-half pound of

pesticide in 1 gallon of water applied to 1,000 square feet is

equivalent to 1 pound of pesticide in 2 gallons of water

applied to 2,000 square feet.


     There is a point at which measurements needed for smaller

quantities of pesticides are too minute to be accurately

measured with typical domestic measuring devices. In such

cases, the user can either mix the larger volume, realizing

that there will be leftover material; obtain a more accurate

measuring device, such as a graduated cylinder or a scale which

measures small weights; or search for an alternative pesticide

or less concentrated formulation of the same pesticide.



Correct Storage and Disposal

     The following tips on home storage and disposal can help

you handle pesticides correctly.





   * Buy only enough product to carry you through the use

     season, to reduce storage problems.


   * Store pesticides away from children and pets. A locked

     cabinet in a well-ventilated utility area or garden shed

     is best.


   * Store flammable liquids outside living quarters and away

     from an ignition source.


   * Never put pesticides in cabinets with, or near, food,

     medical supplies, or cleaning materials. Always store

     pesticides in their original containers, complete with

     labels that list ingredients, directions for use, and

     antidotes in case of accidental poisoning. Never transfer

     pesticides to soft drink bottles or other containers that

     children may associate with something to eat or drink.

     Always properly refasten child-proof closures or lids.


   * Avoid storing pesticides in places where flooding is

     possible, or in open places where they might spill or leak

     into the environment. If you have any doubt about the

     content of a container, dispose of it with your trash.



   * The best way to dispose of a small, excess amount of

     pesticide is to use it--apply it--according to directions

     on the product label. If you cannot use it, ask your

     neighbor whether he/she can use it. If all the pesticide

     cannot be used, first check with your local health

     department or solid waste management agency to determine

     whether your community has a household hazardous waste

     collection program or any other program for handling

     disposal of pesticides.




   * If no community programs exist, follow label directions

     regarding container disposal. To dispose of less than a

     full container of a liquid pesticide, leave it in the

     original container, with the cap securely in place to

     prevent spills or leaks. Wrap the container in several

     layers of newspapers and tie securely. Then place the

     package in a covered trash can for routine collection with

     municipal refuse. If you do not have a regular trash

     collection service, take the package to a permitted

     landfill (unless your municipality has other



     Note: No more than one gallon of liquid pesticide should

     be disposed of in this manner.


   * Wrap individual packages of dry pesticide formulations in

     several layers of newspaper, or place the package in a

     tight carton or bag, and tape or tie it closed. As with

     liquid formulations, place the package in a covered trash

     can for routine collection.


     Note: No more than 5 pounds of pesticide at a time should

     be disposed of in this manner.


   * Do not pour leftover pesticides down the sink or into the

     toilet. Chemicals in pesticides could interfere with the

     operation of wastewater treatment systems or could pollute

     waterways, because many municipal systems cannot remove

     all pesticide residues.


   * An empty pesticide container can be as hazardous as a full

     one because of residues remaining inside. Never reuse such

     a container. When empty, a pesticide container should be

     carefully rinsed and thoroughly drained. Liquids used to

     rinse the container should be added to the sprayer or to

     the container previously used to mix the pesticide and

     used according to label directions.


     Empty product containers made of plastic or metal should

     be punctured to prevent reuse. (Do not puncture or burn a

     pressurized product container--it could explode.) Glass

     containers should be rinsed and drained, as described

     above, and the cap or closure replaced securely. After

     rinsing, an empty mixing container or sprayer may also be

     wrapped and placed in the trash.


   * If you have any doubts about proper pesticide disposal,

     contact your state or local health department, your solid

     waste management agency, or the regional EPA office.



How to Choose a Pest Control Company


     Termites are chomping away at your house. Roaches are

taking over your kitchen. Mouse droppings dot your dresser

drawer. You've got a pest control problem, and you've decided

that it's too serious for you to solve on your own. You've

decided you need a professional exterminator.


     If you find yourself in a situation like this, what can

you do to be sure that the pest control company you hire will

do a good job? Here are some questions you can ask:


1. Does the company have a good track record?


     Don't rely on the company salesman to answer this

question; research the answer yourself. Ask around among

neighbors and friends; have any of them dealt with the company

before? Were they satisfied with the service they received?

Call the Better Business Bureau or local consumer office; have

they received any complaints about the company?


2. Does the company have insurance? What kind of insurance? Can

the salesman show some documentation to prove that the company

is insured?


     Contractor's general liability insurance, including

insurance for sudden and accidental pollution, gives you as a

homeowner a certain degree of protection should an accident

occur while pesticides are being applied in your home.

Contractor's workmen's compensation insurance can also help

protect you should an employee of the contractor be injured

while working in your home.


     In most states, pest control companies are not required to

buy insurance, but you should think twice before dealing with a

company that is uninsured.


3. Is the company licensed?


     Regulatory agencies in some states issue state pest

control licenses. Although the qualifications for a license

vary from state to state, at a minimum the license requires

that each company have a certified pesticide applicator present

in the office on a daily basis to supervise the work of

exterminators using restricted-use pesticides. (Certified

applicators are formally trained and "certified" as qualified

to use or supervise the use of pesticides that are classified

for restricted use.) If restricted-use pesticides are to be

applied on your premises, make sure the pest control operator's

license is current. Also ask if the company's employees are



     You may want to contact your state lead pesticide agency

to ask about its pesticide certification and training programs

and to inquire if periodic recertification is required for pest

control operators.


     In addition to the licenses required in some states, some

cities also issue pest control licenses. Again, qualifications

vary, but possession of a city license--where they are

available--is one more assurance that the company you are

dealing with is reputable and responsible.


4. Is the company affiliated with a professional pest control



     Professional associations--whether national, state, or

local--keep members informed of new developments in pest

control methods, safety, training, research, and regulation.

They also have codes of ethics that members agree to abide by.

The fact that a company, small or large, chooses to affiliate

itself with a professional association signals its concern for

the quality of its work.


5. Does the company stand behind its work? What assurances does

the company make?


     You should think twice about dealing with a company

unwilling to stand behind its work. Be sure to find out what

you must do to keep your part of the bargain. For example, in

the case of termite control treatments, a guarantee may be

invalidated if structural alterations are made without prior

notice to the pest control company.


6. Is the company willing, and able, to discuss the treatment

proposed for your home?


     Selecting a pest control service is just as important as

selecting other professional services. Look for the same high

degree of competence you would expect from a doctor or lawyer.

The company should inspect your premises and outline a

recommended control program, including what pests are to be

controlled; the extent of the infestation; what pesticide

formulation will be used in your home and why; what techniques

will be used in application; what alternatives to the

formulation and techniques could be used instead; what special

instructions you should follow to reduce your exposure to the

pesticide (such as vacating the house, emptying the cupboards,

removing pets, etc.); and what you can do to minimize your pest

problems in the future.


     Contracts should be jointly developed. Any safety concerns

should be noted and reflected in the choice of pesticides to be

used. These concerns could include allergies, age of occupants

(infants or elderly), or pets. You may want to get two to

three, bids from different companies--by value, not price. What

appears to be a bargain may merit a second look.


     Even after you have hired a company, you should continue

your vigilance. Evaluate results. If you have reason to believe

that something has gone wrong with the pesticide application,

contact the company and/or your state lead pesticide agency.

Don't let your guard down, and don't stop asking questions.



How to Reduce Your Exposure to Pesticides

     Because chemical pesticides are so widely used in our

society, and because of the properties of many of the

chemicals, low levels of pesticide residues are found

throughout the environment. Pesticides reach us in a variety of

ways--through food, water, and air.


     In regulating pesticides, EPA strives to ensure that

lawful use of these products will not result in harmful

exposures. Proper use of registered products should yield

residue levels that are well within established safety

standards. Therefore, the average American's exposure to

low-level residues, though fairly constant, should not cause



     Still, many people want to learn what choices they can

make to further reduce their exposure to any potential risks

associated with pesticides. By limiting your exposure to these

products, you can keep your risks to a minimum.


     Below you will find descriptions of the main pathways of

human exposure to pesticides, as well as suggestions on ways to

reduce overall exposure and attendant risks. If, however, you

suspect that you suffer from serious chemical sensitivities,

consult an expert to develop a more personally tailored

approach to managing this problem.



Exposure Through Food

Commercial Food

     Throughout life--beginning even before birth--we are all

exposed to pesticides. A major source of exposure is through

our diets. We constantly consume small amounts of pesticides.

Fruits and vegetables, as well as meat, poultry, eggs, and

milk, are all likely to contain measurable pesticide residues.


     EPA sets standards, called tolerances, to limit the amount

of pesticide residues that legally may remain in or on food or

animal feed marketed in U.S. commerce. Both domestic and

imported foods are monitored by the Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture

(USDA) to ensure compliance with these tolerances. Further,

since pesticide residues generally tend to degrade over time

and through processing, residue concentrations in or on most

foods are well below legal tolerance levels by the time the

foods are purchased.


     Although EPA does limit dietary pesticide exposure through

tolerances, you may wish to take extra precautions. You can

take several steps to reduce your exposure to residues in

purchased food.


   * Rinse fruit and vegetables thoroughly with water; scrub

     them with a brush and peel them, if possible. Although

     this surface cleaning will not remove "systemic" pesticide

     residues taken up into the growing fruit or vegetable, it

     will remove most of the existing surface residues, not to

     mention any dirt.


   * Cook or bake foods to reduce residues of some (but not

     all) pesticides.


   * Trim the fat from meat and poultry. Discard the fats and

     oils in broths and pan drippings, since residues of some

     pesticides concentrate in fat.



Home-grown Food


     Growing some of your own food can be both a pleasurable

activity and a way to reduce your exposure to pesticide

residues in food. But, even here, there are some things you may

want to do to assure that exposure is limited.


   * Before converting land in an urban or suburban area to

     gardening, find out how the land was used previously.

     Choose a site that had limited (or no) chemical

     applications and where drift or runoff from your

     neighbor's activities will not result in unintended

     pesticide residues on your produce. Choose a garden site

     strategically to avoid these potential routes of entry, if



     If you are taking over an existing garden plot, be aware

     that the soil may contain pesticide residues from previous

     gardening activities. These residues may remain in the

     soil for several years, depending on the persistence of

     the pesticides that were used. Rather than waiting for the

     residues to decline naturally over time, you may speed the



   * Plant an interim, non-food, crop like annual rye grass,

     clover, or alfalfa. Such crops, with their dense, fibrous

     root systems, will take up some of the lingering pesticide

     residues. Then discard the crops--don't work them back

     into the soil--and continue to alternate food crops with

     cover crops in the off season.


   * During sunny periods, turn over the soil as often as every

     two to three days for a week or two. The sunlight will

     help to break down, or photodegrade, some of the pesticide



     Once you do begin gardening, develop strategies that will

     reduce your need for pesticides while maintaining good

     crop yields.


   * Concentrate on building your garden's soil, since healthy

     soil grows healthy plants. Feed the soil with compost,

     manure, etc., to increase its capacity to support strong



   * Select seeds and seedlings from hardy, disease-resistant

     varieties. The resulting plants are less likely to need

     pesticides in order to flourish.


   * Avoid monoculture gardening techniques. Instead, alternate

     rows of different kinds of plants to prevent significant

     pest problems from developing.


   * Don't plant the same crop in the same spot year after year

     if you want to reduce plant susceptibility to

     over-wintered pests.


   * Become familiar with integrated pest management (IPM)

     techniques, so that you can manage any pest outbreaks that

     do occur without relying solely on pesticides.


   * Mulch your garden with leaves, hay, grass clippings,

     shredded/chipped bark, or seaweed. Avoid using newspapers

     to keep down weeds, and sewage sludge to fertilize plants.

     Newsprint may contain heavy metals; sludge may contain

     heavy metals and pesticides, both of which can leach into

     your soil.



Food from the Wild

     While it might seem that hunting your own game, catching

your own fish, or gathering wild plant foods would reduce your

overall exposure to pesticides, this isn't necessarily so. Wild

foods hunted, caught, or gathered in areas where pesticides are

frequently used outdoors may contain pesticide residues.

Migratory species also may contain pesticide residues if these

chemicals are used anywhere in their flyways.


     Tolerances generally are not established or enforced for

pesticides found in wild game, fowl, fish, or plants. Thus, if

you consume food from the wild, you may want to take the

following steps to reduce your exposure to pesticide residues.


   * Because wild game is very lean, there is less fat in which

     pesticides can accumulate. However, avoid hunting in areas

     where pesticide usage is very high.


   * Avoid fishing in water bodies where water contamination is

     known to have occurred. Pay attention to posted signs

     warning of contamination.


   * You may want to consult with fish and game officials where

     you plan to hunt or fish to determine whether there are

     any pesticide problems associated with that area.


   * When picking wild plant foods, avoid gathering right next

     to a road, utility right-of-way, or hedgerow between farm

     fields which probably have been treated (directly or

     indirectly) with pesticides. Instead, seek out fields that

     have not been used to produce crops, deep woods, or other

     areas where pesticide use is unlikely.


   * When preparing wild foods, trim fat from meat, and discard

     skin of fish to remove as many fat-soluble pesticide

     residues as possible. For wild plant foods, follow the

     tips provided for commercial food.


Exposure Through Water

     Whether it comes from surface or ground water sources, the

water flowing from your tap may contain low levels of



     When pesticides are applied to land, a certain amount may

run off the land into streams and rivers. This runoff, coupled

with industrial discharges, can result in low-level

contamination of surface water. In certain hydrogeologic

settings--for example, sandy soil over a ground water source

that is near the surface--pesticides can leach down through the

soil to the ground water.


     EPA's Water Program sets standards and provides advisory

levels for pesticides and other chemicals that may be found in

drinking water. Public municipal water systems test their water

periodically and provide treatment or alternate supply sources

if residue problems arise. Private wells generally are not

tested unless the well owner requests such analysis.


     If you get your drinking water from a private well, you

can reduce the chance of contaminating your water

supply by following these guidelines:


   * Be cautious about using pesticides and other chemicals on

     your property, especially if the well is shallow or is not

     tightly constructed. Check with your EPA regional office

     or County Extension Service before using a pesticide

     outdoors, to determine whether it is known or suspected to

     leach to ground water. Never use or mix a pesticide near

     your well head.


   * To avoid pesticide contamination problems, be sure your

     well extends downward to aquifers that are below, and

     isolated from, surface aquifers, and be sure the well

     shaft is tightly sealed. If you have questions about

     pesticide or other chemical residues in your well water,

     contact your state or county health department.


   * If your well water is analyzed and found to contain

     pesticide residue levels above established or recommended

     health standards, you may wish to use an alternate water

     source such as bottled water for drinking and cooking. The

     best choice is distilled spring water in glass bottles.

     Ask your local bottler for the results of a recent

     pesticide analysis.



Exposure Through Air

     Outdoors, air currents may carry pesticides that were

applied on adjacent property or miles away. But there are steps

you can take to reduce your exposure to airborne pesticide

residue, or drift, outdoors. To reduce your exposure to

airborne pesticides:


   * Avoid applying pesticides in windy weather (when winds

     exceed 10 miles per hour).


   * Use coarse droplet nozzles to reduce misting.


   * Apply the spray as close to the target as possible.


   * Keep the wind to your side so that sprays and dusts do not

     blow into your face.


   * If someone else is applying pesticides outdoors near your

     home, stay indoors with your pets and children, keeping

     doors and windows closed. If it is very windy during the

     pesticide application, stay inside for an hour or two.


   * If pesticides are applied frequently near your home (if

     you live next to fields receiving regular pesticide

     treatment), consider planting a buffer zone of

     thick-branched trees and shrubs upwind to help serve as a

     buffer zone and windbreak.


   * Many local governments require public notification in

     advance of area-wide or broad-scale pesticide spray

     activities and programs--through announcements in

     newspapers, letters to area residents, or posting of signs

     in areas to be treated. Some communities have also enacted

     "right to know" ordinances which require public

     notification, usually through posting, of lawn treatments

     and other small-scale outdoor pesticide uses. If your

     local government does not require notifications, either

     for large- or small-scale applications, you may want to

     work with local officials to develop such requirements.


     Indoors, the air you breathe may bear pesticide residues

     long after a pesticide has been applied to objects in your

     home or office, or to indoor surfaces and crawl spaces.

     Pesticides dissipate more slowly indoors than outdoors. In

     addition, energy efficiency features built into many homes

     reduce air exchange, aggravating the problem. To limit

     your exposure to indoor pesticide residues:


   * Use pesticides indoors only when absolutely necessary, and

     then use only limited amounts. Provide adequate

     ventilation during and after application. If you hire a

     pest control company, oversee its activities carefully.


   * If pesticides are used inside your home, air out the house

     often, since outdoor air generally is fresher and purer

     than indoor air. Open doors and windows, and run overhead

     or whole-house fans to exchange indoor air for outside air

     rapidly and completely.


   * If pesticides have been used extensively and an indoor air

     contamination problem has developed, clean--scrub--all

     surfaces where pesticides may have settled, including

     cracks and crevices. Consult a knowledgeable professional

     for advice on appropriate cleaning materials if soap and

     water are insufficient.



Exposure Through Home Usage

     Over a lifetime, diet is the most significant source of

pesticide exposure for the general public. However, on a

short-term basis, the most significant exposure source is

personal pesticide use.


     An array of pesticide products, ranging widely in toxicity

and potential effects, is available "off the shelf" to the

private user. No special training is required to purchase or

use these products, and no one is looking over the users'

shoulder, monitoring their vigilance in reading and following

label instructions. Yet many of these products are hazardous,

especially if they are stored, handled, or applied improperly.


     To minimize the hazards and maximize the benefits that

pesticides bring, exercise caution and respect when using any

pesticide product.


   * Consider pesticide labeling to be what it is intended to

     be: your best guide to using pesticides safely and



   * Pretend that the pesticide product you are using is more

     toxic than you think it is. Take special precautions to

     ensure an extra margin of protection for yourself, your

     family, and pets.


   * Don't use more pesticide than the label says. You may not

     achieve a higher degree of pest control, and you will

     certainly experience a higher degree of risk.


   * If you hire a pest control firm to do the job, ask the

     company to use the least toxic or any chemical-free pest

     control means available that will do the job. For example,

     some home pest control companies offer an electro-gun

     technique to control termite and similar infestations by

     penetrating infested areas and "frying" the problem pests

     without using any chemicals.


   * And remember: sometimes a non-pesticidal approach is as

     convenient and effective as its chemical alternatives.

     Consider using such non-pesticidal approaches whenever




"Someone's Been Poisoned. Help!"



What To Do in a Pesticide Emergency

     The potential for a pesticide to cause injury depends upon

several factors:


   * Toxicity of the active ingredient. Toxicity is a measure

     of the inherent ability of a chemical to produce injury.

     Some pesticides, such as pyrethrins, have low human

     toxicity while others, such as sodium fluoroacetate, are

     extremely toxic.


   * Dose. The greater the dose of a specific pesticide, i.e.

     the amount absorbed, the greater the risk of injury. Dose

     is dependent upon the absolute amount of the pesticide

     absorbed relative to the weight of the person. Therefore,

     small amounts of a pesticide might produce illness in a

     small child while the same dose of the same pesticide in

     an adult might be relatively harmless.


   * Route of absorption. Swallowing a pesticide usually

     creates the most serious problem. In practice, however,

     the most common route of absorption of pesticides is

     through the skin and the most toxic pesticides have

     resulted in death through this route of exposure.


   * Duration of exposure. The longer a person is exposed to

     pesticides, the higher the level in the body. There is a

     point at which an equilibrium will develop between the

     intake and the output. Then, the level will no longer

     continue to increase. However, this point may be either

     above or below the known toxic level.


   * Physical and chemical properties. The distribution and the

     rates of breakdown of pesticides in the environment

     significantly alter the likelihood that injury might



   * Population at risk. Persons who run the greatest danger of

     poisoning are those whose exposure is highest, such as

     workers who mix, load, or apply pesticides. However, the

     general public also faces the possibility of exposure.



Recognizing Pesticide Poisoning

     Like other chemicals, pesticides may produce injury

externally or internally.


     External irritants may cause contact-associated skin

disease primarily of an irritant nature--producing redness,

itching, or pimples--or an allergic skin reaction, producing

redness, swelling, or blistering. The mucous membranes of the

eyes, nose, mouth, and throat are also quite sensitive to

chemicals. Stinging and swelling can occur.


     Internal injuries from any chemical may occur depending

upon where a chemical is transported in the body. Thus,

symptoms are dependent upon the organ involved. Shortness of

breath, clear saliva, or rapid breathing may occur as the

result of lung injury. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, or

diarrhea may result from direct injury to the gastrointestinal

tract. Excessive fatigue, sleepiness, headache, muscle

twitching, and loss of sensation may result from injury to the

nervous system. In general, different classes of pesticides

produce different sets of symptoms.


      For example, organophosphate pesticides may produce

symptoms of pesticide poisoning affecting several different

organs, and may progress rapidly from very mild to severe.

Symptoms may progress in a matter of minutes from slight

difficulty with vision to paralysis of the diaphragm muscle,

causing inability to breathe.


     Therefore, if someone develops symptoms after working with

pesticides, seek medical help promptly to determine if the

symptoms are pesticide-related. In certain cases, blood or

urine can be collected for analysis, or other specific exposure

tests can be made. It is better to be too cautious than too



     It is always important to avoid problems by minimizing

your exposure when mixing and applying pesticides by wearing

gloves and other protective clothing.


     The appropriate first aid treatment depends upon which

pesticide was used. Here are some tips for first aid that may

precede, but should not substitute for, medical treatment:


   * Poison on skin. Drench skin with water and remove

     contaminated clothing. Wash skin and hair thoroughly with

     soap and water. Dry victim and wrap in blanket. Later,

     discard contaminated clothing or thoroughly wash it

     separately from other laundry.


   * Chemical burn on skin. Drench skin with water and remove

     contaminated clothing. Cover burned area immediately with

     loose, clean, soft cloth. Do not apply ointments, greases,

     powders, or other drugs. Later, discard or thoroughly wash

     contaminated clothing separately from other laundry.


   * Poison in eye. Eye membranes absorb pesticides faster than

     any other external part of the body; eye damage can occur

     in a few minutes with some types of pesticides. Hold

     eyelid open and wash eye quickly and gently with clean

     running water from the tap or a hose for 15 minutes or

     more. Do not use eye drops or chemicals or drugs in the

     wash water.


   * Inhaled poison. Carry or drag victim to fresh air

     immediately. (If proper protection is unavailable to you,

     call for emergency equipment from the Fire Department.)

     Loosen victim's tight clothing. If the victim's skin is

     blue or the victim has stopped breathing, give artificial

     respiration and call rescue service for help. Open doors

     and windows so no one else will be poisoned by fumes.


   * Swallowed poison. A conscious victim should rinse his

     mouth with plenty of water and then drink up to one quart

     of milk or water to dilute the pesticide. Induce vomiting

     only if instructions to do so are on the label. If there

     is no label available to guide you, do not induce

     vomiting. Never induce vomiting if the victim is

     unconscious or is having convulsions.


     In dealing with any poisoning, act fast; speed is crucial.



First Aid for Pesticide Poisoning


     First aid is the first step in treating a pesticide

poisoning. Study the "Statement of Treatment" on the product

label before you use a pesticide. When you realize a pesticide

poisoning is occurring, be sure the victim is not being further

exposed to the poison before calling for emergency help. An

unconscious victim will have to be dragged into fresh air.

Caution: do not become poisoned yourself while trying to help.

You may have to put on breathing equipment or protective

clothing to avoid becoming the second victim.


     After giving initial first aid, get medical help

immediately. This advice cannot be repeated too often. Bring

the product container with its label to the doctor's office or

emergency room where the victim will be treated; keep the

container out of the passenger space of your vehicle. The

doctor needs to know what chemical is in the pesticide before

prescribing treatment (information that is also on the label).

Sometimes the label even includes a telephone number to call

for additional treatment information.


     A good resource in a pesticide emergency is NPTN, the

National Pesticide Telecommunications Network, a toll-free

telephone service. Operators are on call 24 hours a day, 365

days a year, to provide information on pesticides and on

recognizing and responding to pesticide poisonings. If

necessary they can transfer inquiries directly to affiliated

poison control centers.


National Pesticide Telecommunications Network

Call Toll-Free 1-800-858-7378


     NPTN operators answer questions about animal as well as

human poisonings. To keep your pets from being poisoned, follow

label directions on flea and tick products carefully, and keep

pets off lawns that have been newly treated with weed killers

and insecticides.


     EPA is interested in receiving information on any adverse

effects associated with pesticide exposure. If you have such

information, contact Frank Davido, Pesticide Incident Response

Officer, Field Operations Division (H-7506C), Office of

Pesticide Programs, EPA, 401 M Street, SW., Washington, D C

20460. You should provide as complete information as possible,

including any official investigation report of the incident and

medical records concerning adverse health effects. Medical

records will be held in confidence.



EPA Regional Offices and States Covered



EPA Region 1

JFK Federal Building

Boston, MA 02203

(617) 565-3424


Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,




EPA Region 2

26 Federal Plaza

New York, NY 10278

(212) 264-2515


New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands



EPA Region 3

841 Chestnut Street

Philadelphia, PA 19107

(215) 597-9370


Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia,

District of Columbia



EPA Region 4

345 Courtland Street, N.E.

Atlanta, GA 30365

(404) 347-3004


Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North

Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee



EPA Region 5

230 South Dearborn Street

Chicago, IL 60604

(312) 353-2072


Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin



EPA Region 6

1445 Ross Avenue

Dallas, TX 75202

(214) 655-2200


Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas



EPA Region 7

726 Minnesota Avenue

Kansas City, KS 66101

(913) 551-7003


Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska



EPA Region 8

One Denver Place

999 18th Street, Suite 1300

Denver, CO 80202-2413

(303) 293-1692


Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming



EPA Region 9

75 Hawthorne Street

San Francisco, CA 94105

FTS 8-848-1305

DDD (415) 744-1305


Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, American Samoa, Guam,

Trust Territories of the Pacific



EPA Region 10

1200 Sixth Avenue

Seattle, WA 98101

FTS 8-399-1107

DDD (206) 553-1107


Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington



EPA Headquarters

401 M Street S.W.

Washington, D.C. 20460

(202) 382-4454


United States Environmental Protection Agency

Regional Organization




State Pesticide Agencies



Region 1



Dept. of Environmental Protection

Bureau of Waste Management, Pesticide Division

State Office Building

165 Capitol Avenue

Hartford, CT 06106

(203) 566-5148




Board of Pesticide Control

Dept. of Agriculture

State House -- Station 28

Augusta, ME 04333

(207) 289-2731




Pesticides Bureau

Dept. of Food and Agriculture

100 Cambridge Street, 21st Floor

Boston, MA 02202

(617) 727-3020


New Hampshire


Division of Pesticides Control

Dept. of Agriculture

Caller Box 2042

Concord, NH 03302-2042

(603) 271-3550


Rhode Island


Division of Agriculture and Marketing

Dept. of Environmental Management

22 Hayes Street

Providence, RI 02908

(401) 277-2781




Plant Industry Laboratory of Standards Division

Dept. of Agriculture

116 State St., State Office Bldg

Montpelier, VT 05602

(802) 828-2431


Region 2

New Jersey

Assistant Director,

Pesticide Control Program

NJ Dept. of Environmental Protection

380 Scotch Road CN 411

Trenton, NJ 08625

(609) 530-4123


New York


Bureau of Pesticides

Dept. of Environmental Conservation

Rm. 404, 50 Wolf Rd.

Albany NY 12233-7254

(518) 457-7482


Puerto Rico


Analysis & Registration of Agricultural Materials

Division of Laboratory

Puerto Rico Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 10163

Santurce, PR 00908

(809) 796-1715


Virgin Islands


Pesticide Programs

Division of Natural Resources Management

Department of Conservation and Cultural Affairs

P.O. Box 4340

St. Thomas, VI 00801

(809) 773-0565


Region 3


Delaware Dept. of Agriculture

2320 S. DuPont Highway

Dover, DE 19901

(302) 739-4811


District of Columbia

Pesticide and Hazardous Waste Management Branch,

Environmental Control Division

Room 203

2100 Martin Luther King Avenue S.E.

Washington, D.C. 20020

(202) 404-1167




Pesticide Regulation Section

Maryland Dept. of Agriculture

50 Harry S. Truman Parkway

Annapolis, MD 21401

(301) 841-5710




Agronomic Services

Bureau of Plant Industry

PA Dept. of Agriculture

2301 N. Cameron Street

Harrisburg, PA 17110-9408

(717) 787-4843




Office of Pesticide Management

VA Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Service

P.O. Box 1163

Richmond, VA 23209

(804) 371-6558


West Virginia

Plant Pest Control Division

W VA Dept. of Agriculture

State Capitol Building

Charleston, WV 25305

(304) 348-2212


Region 4



Agricultural Chemistry/Plant Industry Division

Alabama Dept. of Agriculture and Industries

P.O. Box 3336

Montgomery, AL 36109-0336

(205) 242-2631




Pesticide Registration Section

Bureau of Pesticides

Division of Inspection

Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services

3125 Conner Boulevard

Tallahassee, FL 32399-1650

(904) 487-0532



Agricultural Manager

Entomology and Pesticides Division

Dept. of Agriculture

19 Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, S.W.

Atlanta, GA 30334

(404) 656-4958




Division of Pesticides

Kentucky Dept. of Agriculture

500 Metro Street, 7th Floor

Frankfort, KY 40601

(502) 564-7274



Division of Plant Industry

Dept. of Agriculture & Commerce

P.O. Box 5207

Mississippi State, MS 39762

(601) 325-3390


North Carolina



Food & Drug Pesticide Section

Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 27647

Raleigh NC 27611-0647

(919) 733-3556


South Carolina



Dept. of Fertilizer/Pest Control

256 Poole Agriculture Center

Clemson University

Clemson, SC 29634-0394

(803) 656-3171




Plant Industries Division

Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 40627, Melrose Station

Nashville, TN 37204

(615) 360-0130


Region 5



Bureau of Plant and Apiary Protection

Dept. of Agriculture

State Fair Ground

P.O. Box 19281

Springfield, IL 62794-9281

(217) 785-2427


Office of Health Regulation

Dept. of Public Health

535 West Jefferson

Springfield, IL 62761

(217) 782-4674





Office of the State Chemist

Dept. of Biochemistry

Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN 47907

(317) 494-1492



Pesticide and Plant Pest Management Division

Dept. of Agriculture

Ottawa Building

N. Tower, 4th Floor

611 W. Ottawa St.

P.O. Box 30017

Lansing, MI 48909

(517) 373-1087




Division of Agronomy Services

Dept. of Agriculture

90 West Plato Blvd.

St. Paul, MN 55107

(612) 296-1161



Specialist in Charge of Pesticide Regulation

Division of Plant Industry

Dept. of Agriculture

8995 East Main St.

Reynoldsburg, OH 43068

(614) 866-6361




Groundwater and Regulatory Service Section

Dept. of Agriculture

Trade and Consumer Protection

801 West Badger Rd.

P.O. Box 8911

Madison, WI 53708

(608) 266-9459


Region 6



Division of Feed, Fertilizer & Pesticides

Arkansas State Plant Board

#1 Natural Resources Dr.

Little Rock, AR 72203

(501) 225-1598



Office of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Louisiana Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 3596

Baton Rouge, LA 70821-3596

(504) 925-3763


New Mexico


Division of Agricultural and Environmental Services

N.M. State Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 3005-3AQ 1

N.M. State University

Las Cruces, NM 88003

(505) 545-2133




Pest Management Section

Plant Industry Division

Oklahoma State Dept. of Agriculture

2800 N. Lincoln Blvd.

Oklahoma City, OK 73105

(405) 521-3864




Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences

Texas Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 12847

Austin, TX 78711

(512) 463-7534


Region 7




Pesticide Control Bureau Section

Iowa Dept. of Agriculture

Henry A. Wallace Building

E. 9th St. & Grand Ave.

Des Moines, IA 50319

(515) 281-8591




Plant Health Division

Kansas State Board of Agriculture

109 S.W. 9th Street

Topeka, KS 66612

(913) 296-2263




Bureau of Pesticide Control

Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 630

Jefferson City, MO 65102

(314) 751-2462




Bureau of Plant Industry

Nebraska Dept. of Agriculture

301 Centennial Mall South

Lincoln, NE 68509

(402) 471-2341



Region 8




Pesticide Applicator Section

Division of Plant Industry

Colorado Department of Agriculture

700 Kipling Street Ste 4000

Lakewood, CO 80215-5894

(303) 866-2838




Environmental Management Division

Montana Dept. of Agriculture

Agriculture-Livestock Building

Rm. 317 Capitol Station

6th & Roberts

Helena, MT 59620-0205

(406) 444-2944


North Dakota


Pesticide/Noxious Weed Division

N.D. Dept. of Agriculture

600 East Boulevard, 6th Floor

Bismarck, ND 58505-0020

(701) 224-4756


South Dakota


Division of Regulatory Services

S.D. Dept. of Agriculture

Anderson Bldg.,

445 East Capitol

Pierre, SD 57501

(605) 773-3724




Division of Plant Industries

Utah Dept. of Agriculture

350 North Redwood Road

Salt Lake City, UT 84116

(801) 538-7123




Pesticide Division

Wyoming Dept. of Agriculture

2219 Carey Avenue

Cheyenne, WY 82002-0100

(307) 777-6590



Region 9



Agricultural Chemical & Environmental Services Division

AZ Commission of Agriculture and Horticulture

1688 West Adam's, Suite 103

Phoenix, AZ 85007

(602) 542-4373


State Chemist

Office of the State Chemist

P.O. Box 1586

Mesa, AZ 85211

(602) 833-5442


Executive Director

Structural Pest Control Commission

1150 S. Priest, Suite 4

Tempe, AZ 85281

(602) 255-3664



California Department of Pesticide Regulation

1220 "N" Street

Sacramento, CA 98514

(916) 322-6315




Division of Plant Industry

Hawaii Dept. of Agriculture

1428 South King Street

Honolulu, HI 96814-2512

(808) 548-7119




Division of Plant Industry

Nevada Dept. of Agriculture

350 Capitol Hill Avenue

P.O. Box 11100

Reno, NV 89510-1100

(702) 688-1180



Pesticide Enforcement Officer Guam

Environmental Protection Agency

130 Rojas Street

Harmon, GU 96910


American Samoa


Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 366

Pago Pago, American Samoa 96799


Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Executive Officer

Trust Territory

Environmental Protection Board

Office of the High Commissioner

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Saipan, Mariana Islands 96950


Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Environmental Engineer

Division of Environmental Quality

Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

Dr. Torres Hospital

Saipan, Mariana Island 96950


Region 10



Bureau of Pesticides

Idaho Dept. of Agriculture

P.O. Box 790

Boise, ID 83701

(208) 334-3243



Assistant Chief

Plant Division

Oregon Dept. of Agriculture

635 Capitol Street, N.E.

Salem, OR 97310-0110

(503) 378-3776



Assistant Director,

Pesticide Management Division

Washington Department of Agriculture

406 General Administration Building (AX-41)

Olympia, WA 98504

(206) 753-5062




Division of Environmental Health

Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation

P.O. Box "O"

Juneau, AK 99811-1800

(907) 465-2609


Pesticide Program Supervisor and Pesticide Specialist

500 South Alaska Street, Suite A

Juneau, AK 99645

(907) 465-2696

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