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 SCHOOLS WITHOUT DRUGS

                 A Plan for Us All

 

CONTENTS

 

WHAT CAN WE DO?

 

CHILDREN AND DRUGS

 

   Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

   Fact Sheet: Drugs and Dependence

   How Drug Use Develops

   Fact Sheet: Youth and Alcohol

   Effects of Drug Use

   Fact Sheet: Cocaine: Crack

   Drug Use and Learning

 

A PLAN FOR ACTION

 

   What Parents Can Do

 

     Instilling Responsibility

     Supervising Activities

     Fact Sheet: Signs of Drug Use

     Recognizing Drug Use

 

   What Schools Can Do

 

     Assessing the Problem

     Enforcing Policy Seeing Policy

     Teaching About Drug Prevention

     Fact Sheet: Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention Materials

     Enlisting the Community's Help

     Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Search and Seizure

     Fact Sheet: Legal Questions on Suspension and Expulsion

 

   What Students Can Do

 

     Learning the Facts

     Helping to Fight Drug Use

 

   What Communities Can Do

 

     Providing Support

     Involving Law Enforcement

 

CONCLUSION

 

SPECIAL SECTIONS

 

   Teaching About Drug Prevention

 

   How the Law Can Help

 

   Resources

 

     Specific Drugs and Their Effects

     Sources of Information

     References

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

WHAT CAN WE DO?

 

 

A Plan for Achieving Schools Without Drugs

 

 

PARENTS:

 

  1. Teach standards of right and wrong, and demonstrate these

     standards through personal example.

 

  2. Help children to resist poor pressure to use alcohol and

     other drugs by supervising their activities, knowing who

     their friends are, and talking with them about their

     interests and problems.

 

  3. Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When

     symptoms are observed, respond promptly.

 

SCHOOLS:

 

  4. Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other

     drug use and monitor that use regularly.

 

  5. Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and

     other drug use that include strong corrective actions.

 

  6. Enforce established policies against drug use fairly and

     consistently. Ensure adequate security measures to

     eliminate drugs from school premises and school functions.

 

  7. Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for

     kindergarten through grade 12, teaching that drug use is

     wrong and harmful, and supporting and strengthening

     resistance to drugs.

 

  8. Reach out to the community for support and assistance in

     making the school's anti-drug policy and program work.

     Develop collaborative arrangements in which school

     personnel, parents, school boards, law enforcement

     officers, treatment organizations, and private groups can

     work together to provide necessary resources.

 

STUDENTS:

 

  9. Learn about the effects of alcohol and other drug use, the

     reasons why drugs are harmful, and ways to resist

     pressures to try drugs.

 

 10. Use an understanding of the danger posed by alcohol and

     other drugs to help other students avoid them. Encourage

     other students to resist drugs, persuade those using drugs

     to seek help, and report those selling drugs to parents

     and the school principal.

 

COMMUNITIES:

 

 11. Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the

     expertise and financial resources of community groups and

     agencies.

 

 12. Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of

     drug prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education.

     The police and courts should have well-established

     relationships with the schools.

 

     "I felt depressed and hurt all the time. I hated myself

     for the way I hurt my parents and treated them so cruelly

     and for the way I treated others. I hated myself the most,

     though, for the way I treated myself. I would take drugs

     until I overdosed, and fell further and  further behind in

     school and work and relationships with others. I just

     didn't care anymore whether I lived or died. I stopped

     going to school altogether .... I felt constantly

     depressed and began having thoughts of suicide, which

     scared me a lot! I didn't know where to turn..."

 

          --Stewart, a high school student

 

 

 

CHILDREN AND DRUGS

 

 

     When 13- to 18-year-olds were asked to name the biggest

problem facing young people today, drug use led the list. In

1987, 54 percent of teens cited drugs as their greatest

concern--up from 27 percent only 10 years earlier.

 

     Eighty-nine percent of teens oppose legalization of

marijuana, and 77 percent believe it would be wrong to

decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.

 

     Drugs and alcohol rank high on the list of topics that

teens wish they could discuss more with their parents--42

percent want more discussions with parents about drugs, and 39

percent feel the need to talk about drinking.

 

     --The Gallup Youth Surveys, 1987 and 1988

 

     Adult's share this concern, ranking student drug use as

the most serious problem facing our nation's schools for the

third consecutive year.

 

     --20th Annual Gallup Poll of the Public's Attitudes Toward

     Public Schools, 1988

 

 

Children and Drugs

 

 

     Americans have consistently identified drug use as being

among the top problems confronting the nation's schools. Yet

many do not recognize the degree to which their own children,

their own schools, and their own communities are at risk.

 

     Research shows that drug use among children is 10 times

more prevalent than parents suspect. In addition, many students

know that their parents do not recognize the extent of drug

use; as a result, some young people believe that they can use

drugs with impunity.

 

     School administrators and teachers often are unaware that

some of their students are using and selling drugs on school

property. As Ralph Egers, former superintendent of schools in

South Portland, Maine, put it, "We'd like to think that our

kids don't have this problem, but the brightest kid from the

best family in the community could have the problem."

 

     The facts are:

 

   * Drug use is not confined to young people in certain

     geographic areas or from particular economic backgrounds;

     drug use affects young people throughout the nation.

 

   * Drugs are a serious problem not only among high school

     students but among middle and elementary school students

     as well.

 

   * Heavy drinking, defined as five or more drinks on one

     occasion, is reported by 30 percent of high school

     seniors, and more than one-half are occasional users of

     alcohol.

 

   * All illegal drugs are dangerous; there is no such thing as

     safe or responsible use of illegal drugs.

 

   * Although drug trafficking is controlled by adults, the

     immediate source of drugs for most students is other

     students.

 

     Continuing misconceptions about the drug problem stand in

the way of corrective action. The following section outlines

the nature and extent of the problem and summaries the latest

research on the effects of drugs on students and schools.

 

 

Figure 1

 

 

Percentage of 6th Graders Who Report Peer Pressure to Try Drugs

 

 

 

Source: 1987 Weekly Reader Survey on Drugs and Drinking

 

 

Figure 2

 

 

Percentage of High School Seniors Who Have Used Cocaine

 

 

 

Source: Institute for Social Research 1991

 

 

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

 

 

     Drug use is widespread among American schoolchildren.

Although a national study of high school seniors in 1991 shows

that drug use among young people is declining, the figures

remain unacceptably high (see Figure 2). The United States

continues to have the highest rate of teenage drug use of any

nation in the industrialized world. Forty-four percent of high

school seniors have tried an illicit drug by the time they

graduate. Alcohol is the most widely used drug. By their senior

year, 88 percent of students in the class of 1991 had used

alcohol; 78 percent had used alcohol in the past year and 54

percent had used it in the month prior to the survey. Thirty

percent of seniors surveyed reported at least one occasion of

heavy drinking in the two weeks prior to the survey--an

occasion in which they had five or more drinks in a row.

Twenty-four percent of 1991 seniors reported using marijuana in

the past year, and 14 percent said they had used it at least

once in the previous month. Three and one-half percent of

seniors indicated that they had used cocaine in the past year.

Three percent of seniors had used crack, and 1.5 percent had

used it within the last year.

 

     The drug problem affects all types of students. All

regions and all types of communities show high levels of drug

use. Thirty percent of 1990 high school seniors in

nonmetropolitan areas reported illicit drug use in the previous

year, while the rate for seniors in large metropolitan areas

was 33 percent. Although higher proportions of males are

involved in illicit drug use, especially heavy drug use, the

gap between the sexes is closing. The extent to which high

school seniors reported having used illicit drugs is higher for

whites than for blacks.

 

     Initial use of alcohol and other drugs occurs at an

increasingly early age. Nineteen percent of seniors report they

had initiated cigarette use by sixth grade and 11 percent had

used alcohol. Forty-four percent of 8th graders have tried

cigarettes, and 70 percent have at least tried alcohol.

Twenty-seven percent of 8th graders have gotten drunk at least

once, and 13 percent report they have consumed five or more

drinks in a row. Of the illicit drugs, marijuana and inhalants

show the earliest pattern of initiation; about 2.8 percent of

seniors had begun using both of these substances by the 6th

grade. The peak initiation rate is reached by 9th grade. Peak

initiation rates for cocaine and hallucinogens are reached in

10th and 11th grade with the initiation rate for nearly all

drugs falling off by 12th grade.

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Drugs and Dependence

 

 

     Drugs cause physical and emotional dependence. Users may

develop a craving for specific drugs, and their bodies may

respond to the presence of drugs in ways that lead to increased

drug use.

 

   * Regular users of drugs develop tolerance, a need to take

     larger doses to get the same initial effect. They may

     respond by combining drugs, frequently with devastating

     results. Many teenage drug users calling a national

     cocaine hotline report that they take other drugs just to

     counteract the unpleasant effects of cocaine.

 

   * Certain drugs, such as opiates, barbituates, alcohol, and

     nicotine, create physical dependence. With prolonged use,

     these drugs become part of the body chemistry. When a

     regular user stops taking the drug, the body experiences

     the physiological trauma known as withdrawal.

 

   * Psychological dependence occurs when taking drugs becomes

     the center of the user's life. Among children,

     psychological dependence erodes school performance and can

     destroy ties to family and friends, as well as cause the

     child to abandon outside interests, values, and goals. The

     child goes from taking drugs to feel good, to taking them

     to keep from feeling bad. Over time, drug use itself

     heightens the bad feelings and can leave the user

     suicidal. More than half of all adolescent suicides are

     drug-related.

 

   * Drugs can remain in the body long after use has stopped.

     The extent to which a drug is retained in the body depends

     on the drug's chemical composition, that is, whether it is

     fat-soluble. Fat-soluble drugs such as marijuana and

     phencyclidine (PCP) seek out and settle in the fatty

     tissues. As a result, they build up in the fatty parts of

     the body such as the brain. Such accumulations of drugs

     and their slow release over time may have effects on the

     mind and body weeks or even months after drug use has

     stopped.

 

 

How Drug Use Develops

 

 

     Social influences play a key role in making drug use

attractive to children.

 

     The first temptations to use drugs may come in social

situations in the form of pressures to "act grown up" by

smoking cigarettes or using alcohol or marijuana.

 

     A 1987 Weekly Reader survey found that television and

movies had the greatest influence on fourth through sixth

graders in making drugs and alcohol seem attractive; the second

greatest influence was other children.

 

     The survey offers insights into why students take drugs.

Children in grades four through six think that the most

important reason for using alcohol and marijuana is to "fit in

with others," followed closely by a desire "to feel older."

Students also have incomplete or inaccurate information. For

example, only 44 percent of sixth graders polled in a national

survey think alcohol should be called a drug. This finding

reinforces the need for prevention programs beginning in the

early grades--programs that focus on teaching children the

facts about drugs and alcohol and the skills to resist peer

pressure to use them.

 

     Students who turn to more potent drugs usually do so after

first using cigarettes and alcohol, and then marijuana. Initial

attempts may not produce a "high"; however, students who

continue to use drugs learn that drugs can change their

thoughts and feelings. The greater a student's involvement with

marijuana, the more likely it is the student will begin to use

other drugs in conjunction with marijuana.

 

     Drug use frequently progresses in stages--from occasional

use, to regular use, to multiple drug use, and ultimately to

total dependency. With each successive stage, drug use

intensifies, becomes more varied, and results in increasingly

debilitating effects.

 

     But this progression is not inevitable. Drug use can be

stopped at any stage. However, the more deeply involved

children are with drugs, the more difficult it is for them to

stop. The best way to fight drug use is to begin prevention

efforts before children start using drugs. Prevention efforts

that focus on young children are the most effective means to

fight drug use.

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Youth and Alcohol

 

 

     Alcohol is the number one drug problem among youth. The

easy availability, widespread acceptability, and extensive

promotion of alcoholic beverages within our society make

alcohol the most widely used and abused drug.

 

   * Alcohol use is widespread. By their senior year of high

     school nearly 90 percent of students will have tried

     alcoholic beverages. Despite a legal drinking age of 21,

     junior and senior high school students drink 35 percent of

     all wine coolers sold in the United States. They also

     drink an estimated 1.1 billion bottles and cans of beer

     each year.

 

   * Drinking has acute effects on the body. The heavy,

     fast-paced drinking that young people commonly engage in

     quickly alters judgment, vision, coordination, and speech

     and often leads to dangerous risk-taking behavior. Because

     young people have lower body weight than adults, youth

     absorb alcohol into their blood system faster than adults

     and exhibit greater impairment for longer periods of time.

     Alcohol use not only increases the likelihood of being

     involved in an accident, it increases the risk of serious

     injury in an accident because of its harmful effects on

     numerous parts of the body.

 

   * Alcohol-related highway accidents are the principal cause

     of death among young people ages 15 through 24. Alcohol use

     is the primary cause of traffic accidents involving teenage

     drivers. Furthermore, about half of all youthful deaths in

     drowning, fires, suicide, and homicide are alcohol-related.

 

   * Any alcoholic beverage can be misused. Contrary to popular

     belief, drinking beer or wine can have effects similar to

     drinking "hard" liquor. A bottle of beer, a glass of wine,

     or a bottle of wine cooler have about the same amount of

     ethyl alcohol as a drink made with liquor. Those who drive

     "under the influence" are most likely to have been drinking

     beer.

 

   * Early alcohol use is associated with subsequent alcohol

     dependence and related health problems. Youth who use

     alcohol at a younger age are more likely to use alcohol

     heavily and to experience alcohol-related problems

     affecting their relationships with family and friends by

     late adolescence. Their school performance is likely to

     suffer, and they are more likely to be truant. They are

     also more likely to abuse other drugs and to get in trouble

     with the law, or, if they are girls, to become pregnant.

 

 

Effects of Drug Use

 

 

     The drugs students are taking today are more potent, more

dangerous, and more addictive than ever.

 

     Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of

drugs. Drugs threaten normal development in a number of ways:

 

   * Drugs can interfere with memory, sensation, and

     perception. They distort experiences and cause a loss of

     self-control that can lead users to harm themselves and

     others.

 

   * Drugs interfere with the brain's ability to take in, sort,

     and synthesize information. As a result, sensory

     information runs together, providing new sensations while

     blocking normal ability to understand the information

     received.

 

   * Drugs can have an insidious effect on perception; for

     example, cocaine and amphetamines often give users a false

     sense of functioning at their best while on the drug.

 

     Drug suppliers have responded to the increasing demand for

drugs by developing new strains, producing reprocessed,

purified drugs, and using underground laboratories to create

more powerful forms of illegal drugs. Consequently, users are

exposed to heightened or unknown levels of risk.

 

   * The marijuana produced today is from 5 to 20 times

     stronger than that available as recently as 10 years ago.

     Regular use by adolescents has been associated with an

     "amotivational syndrome," characterized by apathy and loss

     of goals. Research has shown that severe psychological

     damage, including paranoia and psychosis, can occur when

     marijuana contains 2 percent THC, its major psychoactive

     ingredient. Since the early 1980s, most marijuana has

     contained from 4 to 6 percent THC-two or three times the

     amount capable of causing serious damage.

 

   * Crack is a purified and highly addictive form of cocaine.

 

   * Phencyclidine (PCP), first developed as an animal

     tranquilizer, has unpredictable and often violent effects.

     Often children do not even know that they are using this

     drug when PCP-laced parsley in cigarette form is passed

     off as marijuana, or when PCP in crystal form is sold as

     lysergic acid (LSD).

 

   * Some of the "designer" drugs, slight chemical variations

     of existing illegal drugs, have been known to cause

     permanent brain damage with a single dose.

 

     Further information about drugs is presented in the

Resources Section, pages 61-71.

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Cocaine: Crack

 

 

     Cocaine is readily available. Fifty-one percent of seniors

say it would be easy for them to get cocaine. Most alarming is

the ready availability of cocaine in a cheap but potent form

called crack or rock. Crack is a purified form of cocaine that

is smoked.

 

   * Crack is inexpensive to try. Crack is available for as

     little as $5. As a result, the drug is affordable to many

     potential users, including high school and even elementary

     school students.

 

   * Crack is easy to use. It is sold in pieces resembling

     small white gravel or soap chips and is sometimes pressed

     into small pellets. Crack can be smoked in a pipe or put

     into a cigarette. The visible effects disappear within

     minutes after smoking, so detection is difficult.

 

   * Crack is extremely addictive. Crack is far more addictive

     than heroin or barbiturates. Because crack is smoked, it

     is quickly absorbed into the blood stream. It produces a

     feeling of extreme euphoria, peaking within seconds.

     Repeated use of crack can lead to addiction within a few

     days.

 

   * Crack leads to crime and severe psychological disorders.

     Many youths, once addicted, have turned to stealing,

     prostitution, and drug dealing in order to support their

     habit. Continued use can produce violent behavior and

     psychotic states similar to schizophrenia.

 

   * Crack is deadly. Cocaine in any form, including crack, can

     cause sudden death from cardiac arrest or respiratory

     failure.

 

 

Drug Use and Learning

 

 

     Drugs erode the self-discipline and motivation necessary

for learning. Pervasive drug use among students creates a

climate in the schools that is destructive to learning.

 

     Research shows that drug use can cause a decline in

academic performance. This has been found to be true for

students who excelled in school prior to drug use as well as

for those with academic or behavioral problems prior to use.

According to one study, students using marijuana were twice as

likely to average D's and F's as other students. The decline in

grades often reverses when drug use is stopped.

 

     Drug use is closely tied to being truant and dropping out

of school. High school seniors who are heavy drug users are

more than three times as likely to skip school as nonusers.

About one-fifth of heavy users skipped three or more school

days a month, more than six times the truancy rate of nonusers.

In a Philadelphia study, dropouts were almost twice as likely

to be frequent drug users as were high school graduates; four

in five dropouts used drugs regularly.

 

     Drug use is associated with crime and misconduct that

disrupt the maintenance of an orderly and safe school

atmosphere conducive to learning. Drugs not only transform

schools into marketplaces for dope deals, they also lead to the

destruction of property and to classroom disorder. Among high

school seniors, heavy drug users were more than three times as

likely to vandalize school property and twice as likely to have

been involved in a fight at school or at work as nonusers.

Students on drugs create a climate of apathy, disruption, and

disrespect for others. For example, among teenage callers to a

national cocaine hotline, 32 percent reported that they sold

drugs, and 64 percent said that they stole from family,

friends, or employers to buy drugs. A drug-ridden environment

is a strong deterrent to learning not only for drug users but

for other students as well.

 

 

A PLAN FOR ACTION

 

 

     To combat student drug use most effectively, the entire

community must be involved: parents, schools, students, law

enforcement authorities, religious groups, social service

agencies, and the media. They all must transmit a single

consistent message that drug use is wrong and dangerous, and it

will not be tolerated. This message must be reinforced through

strong, consistent law enforcement and disciplinary measures.

 

     The following recommendations and examples describe

actions that can be taken by parents, schools, students, and

communities to stop drug use. These recommendations are derived

from research and from the experiences of schools throughout

the country. They show that the drug problem can be overcome.

 

 

WHAT PARENTS CAN DO

 

 

   * Teach standards of right and wrong, and demonstrate these

     standards through personal example.

 

   * Help children to resist peer pressure to use alcohol and

     other drugs by supervising their activities, knowing who

     their friends are, and talking with them about their

     interests and problems.

 

   * Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When

     symptoms are observed, respond promptly.

 

 

Parents

 

 

Instilling Responsibility

 

 

Recommendation #1:

 

 

     Teach standards of right and wrong and demonstrate these

standards through personal example.

 

     Children who are brought up to value individual

responsibility and self-discipline and to have a clear sense of

right and wrong are less likely to try drugs than those who are

not. Parents can help to instill these values by:

 

   * Setting a good example for children and not using drugs

     themselves.

 

   * Explaining to their children at an early age that drug use

     is wrong, harmful, and unlawful, and reinforcing this

     teaching throughout adolescence.

 

   * Encouraging self-discipline by giving children regular

     duties and holding them accountable for their actions.

 

   * Establishing standards of behavior concerning drugs,

     drinking, dating, curfews, and unsupervised activities,

     and enforcing them consistently and fairly.

 

   * Encouraging their children to stand by their convictions

     when pressured to use drugs.

 

 

Central Elementary

Gulfport, Mississippi

 

 

     Every afternoon after the last bell rings, the POP

(Parents on Patrol) Team springs into action. With their

T-shirts proclaiming "Drug-Free Body" and whistles at the

ready, their mission is to ensure that all children get off the

school grounds and on their way home safely. POPs are also

posted several blocks away from campus. They send a strong

signal to any dealers and drug users who may be in the

neighborhood (which has the highest rate of drug-related crime

in Gulfport), that these children have higher goals, healthier

aspirations.

 

     The POP team is just one way parents are involved in the

drug prevention program at Central Elementary. Spurred, in

part, by the high rate of drug activity in the school's

surrounding neighborhood, the Central staff made an early

commitment to involving parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles

and other caregivers in all aspects of the program's

development.

 

     The school helped train parents to go into the

community--to churches and social centers--to teach drug

awareness and provide child rearing classes. Newsletters and

home visits support Central's outreach.

 

     Inherent in the school's drug prevention program is the

philosophy that the best prevention is providing healthy,

challenging activities for the mind. High on Checkers is just

one such program. Central checker players not only compete

within the school, they take field trips to the "checker

capital of the world" 70 miles from Gulfport. Central champions

have even played in tournaments in Russia and England. Parent

volunteers make travel possible by seeking donations, holding

fund-raising events, and serving as chaperons.

 

     Teachers and parents also devote time and energy to other

activities such as the highly acclaimed Boys Choir, a

problem-solving club called the Think Tank, and the Central

Student Council, one of the few elementary councils in

Mississippi.

 

     Parents may also volunteer to read to students, to help

with the physical education program, or to be a "buddy" in the

cafeteria. Several parents have acknowledged that the Central

drug-free efforts have made a positive difference not only in

the lives of their children, but in their own lives as well.

 

 

Parents

 

 

Supervising Activities

 

 

Recommendation #2:

 

 

     Help children to resist peer pressure to use alcohol and

other drugs by supervising their activities, knowing who their

friends are, and talking with them about their interests and

problems.

 

     When parents take an active interest in their children's

behavior, they provide the guidance and support children need

to resist drugs. Parents can do this by:

 

   * Knowing their children's whereabouts, activities, and

     friends.

 

   * Working to maintain and improve family communications and

     listening to their children.

 

   * Being able to discuss drugs knowledgeably. It is far

     better for children to obtain their information from their

     parents than from their peers or on the street.

 

   * Communicating regularly with the parents of their

     children's friends and sharing their knowledge about drugs

     with other parents.

 

   * Being selective about their children's viewing of

     television and movies that portray drug use as glamorous

     or exciting.

 

     In addition, parents can work with the school in its

efforts to fight drugs by:

 

   * Encouraging the development of a school policy with a

     clear no-use message.

 

   * Supporting administrators who are tough on drugs.

 

   * Assisting the school in monitoring students' attendance

     and planning and chaperoning school-sponsored activities.

 

   * Communicating regularly with the school regarding their

     children's behavior.

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Signs of Drug Use

 

 

     Changing patterns of performance, appearance, and behavior

may signal use of drugs. The items in the first category listed

below provide direct evidence of drug use; the items in the

other categories offer signs that may indicate drug use. Adults

should watch for extreme changes in children's behavior,

changes that together form a pattern associated with drug use.

 

 

Signs of Drugs and Drug Paraphernalia

 

 

   * Possession of drug-related paraphernalia such as pipes,

     rolling papers, small decongestant bottles, eye drops, or

     small butane torches.

 

   * Possession of drugs or evidence of drugs, such as pills,

     white powder, small glass vials, or hypodermic needles;

     peculiar plants or butts, seeds, or leaves in ashtrays or

     in clothing pockets.

 

   * Odor of drugs, smell of incense or other "cover-up"

     scents.

 

 

Identification with Drug Culture

 

 

   * Drug-related magazines, slogans on clothing.

 

   * Conversation and jokes that are preoccupied with drugs.

 

   * Hostility in discussing drugs.

 

   * Collection of beer cans.

 

 

Signs of Physical Deterioration

 

 

   * Memory lapses, short attention span, difficulty in

     concentration.

 

   * Poor physical coordination, slurred or incoherent speech.

 

   * Unhealthy appearance, indifference to hygiene and grooming.

 

   * Bloodshot eyes, dilated pupils.

 

 

Dramatic Changes in School Performance

 

 

   * Marked downturn in student's grades--not just from C's to

     F's, but from A's to B's and C's; assignments not

     completed.

 

   * Increased absenteeism or tardiness.

 

 

Changes in Behavior

 

 

   * Chronic dishonesty (lying, stealing, cheating); trouble

     with the police.

 

   * Changes in friends, evasiveness in talking about new ones.

 

   * Possession of large amounts of money.

 

   * Increasing and inappropriate anger, hostility,

     irritability, secretiveness.

 

   * Reduced motivation, energy, self-discipline, self-esteem.

 

   * Diminished interest in extracurricular activities and

     hobbies.

 

 

Parents

 

 

Recognizing Drug Use

 

 

Recommendation #3:

 

 

     Be knowledgeable about drugs and signs of drug use. When

symptoms are observed, respond promptly.

 

     Parents are in the best position to recognize early signs

of drug use in their children. To inform and involve

themselves, parents should take the following steps:

 

   * Learn about the extent of the drug problem in their

     community and in their children's schools.

 

   * Learn how to recognize signs of drug use.

 

   * Meet with parents of their children's friends or

     classmates about the drug problem at their school.

     Establish a means of sharing information to determine

     which children are using drugs and who is supplying them.

 

 

     Parents who suspect their children are using drugs often

must deal with their own emotions of anger, resentment, and

guilt. Frequently they deny the evidence and postpone

confronting their children. Yet, the earlier a drug problem is

detected and faced, the less difficult it is to overcome. If

parents suspect that their children are using drugs, they

should take the following steps:

 

   * Devise a plan of action. Consult with school officials and

     other parents.

 

   * Discuss their suspicions with their children in a calm,

     objective manner. Do not confront a child while he or she

     is under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

 

   * Impose disciplinary measures that help remove the child

     from those circumstances where drug use might occur.

 

   * Seek advice and assistance from drug treatment

     professionals and from a parent group. (For further

     information, consult the Resources Section, pages 61-81.)

 

 

WHAT SCHOOLS CAN DO

 

 

   * Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other

     drug use and monitor that use regularly.

 

   * Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and

     other drug use that include strong corrective actions.

 

   * Enforce established policies against alcohol and other

     drug use fairly and consistently. Ensure adequate security

     measures to eliminate drugs from school premises and

     school functions.

 

   * Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for

     kindergarten through grade 12, teaching that drug use is

     wrong and harmful, and supporting and strengthening

     resistance to drugs.

 

   * Reach out to the community for support and assistance in

     making the school's anti-drug policy and program work.

     Develop collaborative arrangements in which school

     personnel, parents, school boards, law enforcement

     officers, treatment organizations, and private groups can

     work together to provide necessary resources.

 

 

Schools

 

 

Assessing the Problem

 

 

Recommendation #4:

 

 

     Determine the extent and character of alcohol and other

drug use and monitor that use regularly.

 

     School personnel should be informed about the extent of

drugs in their school. School boards, superintendents, and

local public officials should support school administrators in

their efforts to assess the extent of the drug problem and to

combat it.

 

     To guide and evaluate effective drug prevention efforts,

schools need to take the following actions:

 

   * Conduct anonymous surveys of students and school personnel

     and consult with local law enforcement officials to

     identify the extent of the drug problem.

 

   * Bring together school personnel to identify areas where

     drugs are being used and sold.

 

   * Meet with parents to help determine the nature and extent

     of drug use.

 

   * Maintain records on drug use and sale in the school over

     time, for use in evaluating and improving prevention

     efforts. In addition to self-reported drug use patterns,

     records may include information on drug-related arrests

     and school discipline problems.

 

   * Inform the community, in straightforward language, of the

     results of the school's assessment of the drug problem.

 

 

Roncalli High School

Manitowoc, Wisconsin

 

 

     Before Roncalli, a Catholic coed high school, initiated

its no-use drug policy in the early 1980s, it was not uncommon

after athletic events to see a parking lot full of empty beer

cans and to hear reports of students charged with driving while

intoxicated.

 

     After an alcohol-related teenage traffic fatality jolted

the community, a district-wide survey was taken that showed

widespread drug and alcohol use by high school students. The

Roncalli student body was no exception. In response, an action

plan was developed by students, parents, and the community that

calls for referral and treatment on the first offense for any

student found in the possession of or under the influence of

alcohol or drugs at any Roncalli High School activity. The

consequence for a second offense is dismissal.

 

     Since this program's inception 13 years ago, only one

student has declined referral and treatment choosing instead to

leave school. Tracking surveys each year help the faculty and

students to monitor progress in achieving the school's

drug-free goal.

 

     Positive peer pressure and team spirit are important

ingredients in Roncalli's anti-drug program. The student group

RADD (Roncalli Against Drinking and Drugs) operates as an arm

of the Student Senate to organize and coordinate drug-free

activities through the year. More than 90 percent of the 650

students at Roncalli High participate in RADD's activities that

include dances, open gym, Trivial Pursuit contests, Pictionary

night, video screenings, and other after-school events.

 

     A Peer Helpers program matches all 120 incoming freshmen

with peers who provide information throughout the year on

Roncalli's anti-drug policies and program.

 

     Concerned Persons Groups also meet at Roncalli to offer

extra peer support to students who have a friend or family

member using drugs or who may need a place to talk and find

assistance in confidence. The groups meet during the school day

on alternating schedules so that all may have the option to

attend.

 

     Parents, too, are actively involved in the school program.

The Roncalli Parents Communication Network has commitments from

more than 60 percent of the Roncalli parents to keep their

homes drug-free and to be present when students visit.

 

 

Schools

 

 

Setting Policy

 

 

Recommendation #5:

 

 

     Establish clear and specific rules regarding alcohol and

other drug use that include strong corrective actions.

 

     School policies should clearly establish that drug use,

possession, and sale on the school grounds and at school

functions will not be tolerated. These policies should apply

both to students and to school personnel, and may include

prevention, intervention, treatment, and disciplinary measures.

 

     School policies should have the following characteristics:

 

   * Specify what constitutes a drug offense by defining (1)

     illegal substances and paraphernalia; (2) the area of the

     school's jurisdiction, for example, the school property,

     its surroundings, and all school-related events, such as

     proms and football games; and (3) the types of violations

     (drug possession, use, and sale).

 

   * State the consequences for violating school policy;

     punitive action should be linked to referral for treatment

     and counseling. Measures that schools have found effective

     in dealing with first-time offenders include the

     following:

 

     -- A required meeting of parents and the student with

        school officials, concluding with a contract signed by

        the student and parents in which they both acknowledge

        a rug problem and the student agrees to stop using and

        to participate in drug counseling or a rehabilitation

        program.

 

     -- Suspension, assignment to an alternative school,

        in-school suspension, after-school or Saturday

        detention with close supervision, and demanding

        academic assignments.

 

     -- Referral to a drug treatment expert or counselor.

 

     -- Notification of police.

 

     Penalties for repeat offenders and for sellers may include

expulsion, legal action, and referral for treatment.

 

   * Describe procedures for handling violations, including the

     following:

 

     -- Legal issues associated with disciplinary actions

        (confidentiality, due process, and search and seizure)

        and their application.

 

     -- Circumstances under which incidents should be reported

        and the responsibilities and procedures for reporting

        incidents, including the identification of the

        authorities to be contacted.

 

     -- Procedures for notifying parents when their child is

        suspected of using drugs or is caught with drugs.

 

     -- Procedures for notifying police.

 

   * Enlist legal counsel to ensure that all policy is in

     compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local laws.

 

   * Build community support for the policy. Hold open meetings

     where views can be aired and differences resolved.

 

 

Schools

 

 

Enforcing Policy

 

 

Recommendation #6:

 

 

     Enforce established policies against alcohol and other

drug use fairly and consistently. Ensure adequate security

measures to eliminate drugs from school premises and school

functions.

 

     Ensure that everyone understands the policy and the

procedures that will be followed in case of infractions. Make

copies of the school policy available to all parents, teachers,

and students, and publicize the policy throughout the school

and community.

 

     Impose strict security measures to bar access to intruders

and to prohibit student drug trafficking. Enforcement policies

should correspond to the severity of the school's drug problem.

For example:

 

   * Officials can require students to carry hall passes,

     supervise school grounds and hallways, and secure

     assistance of law enforcement officials, particularly to

     help monitor areas around the school.

 

   * For a severe drug problem, officials can use security

     personnel to monitor closely all school areas where drug

     sales and use are known to occur; issue mandatory

     identification badges for school staff and students;

     request the assistance of local police to help stop drug

     dealing; and, depending on applicable law, develop a

     policy that permits periodic searches of student lockers.

 

     Review enforcement practices regularly to ensure that

penalties are uniformly and fairly applied.

 

   * Consider implementing an alternative program for students

     who have been suspended for drug use or possession. Some

     districts have developed off-campus programs to enable

     suspended students to continue their education in a more

     tightly structured environment. These programs may be

     offered during the day or in the evening, and may offer

     counseling as well as an academic curriculum. Other

     districts have successfully used a probationary

     alternative that combined a short-term in-school

     suspension with requirements for drug testing and

     participation in support groups as a condition of

     returning to the classroom.

 

 

Lawrenceville Middle School

Lawrenceville, Georgia

 

 

     Ten years ago, Lawrenceville, Georgia, was a rural

community outside Atlanta. Today it is a full-fledged suburb,

and one of the nation's fastest-growing. Lawrenceville Middle

School, responding to rapid changes in the community, did not

wait for a crisis to begin thinking about the drug education

needs of its 1100 students. It conducted a survey in 1981 to

use as a benchmark to measure drug-free progress in subsequent

years and to help define an appropriate program--the first in

Gwinnett County--for sixth-, seventh- and eighth-graders.

 

     The Lawrenceville program emphasizes five prevention

strategies: education, life and social skills, healthy

alternatives, risk factor reduction, and environmental change.

While annual surveys help the faculty and parents assess its

effectiveness, they are not the only way they measure

effectiveness. Regular informal assessments and day-today

faculty observation help to fine tune the program from year to

year and suggest any immediate changes required. A case in

point: when teachers began to observe an increase in tobacco

use, particularly smokeless tobacco use, they formed a

committee that included parents and administrators and came up

with a plan to include more information in the curriculum on

the harmful effects of tobacco and more up-to-date materials in

the media center. They also decided to implement a no-tobacco

use policy for the school staff. The following year, incidents

of student tobacco use decreased dramatically.

 

     Parents, students, and teachers attribute much of

Lawrenceville's drug education success to its alternative

program, STRIDE, (Student/Teacher Resource Institute for Drug

Education), a unique concept that has captured the

attention--and drug-free pledges--of more than 80 percent of

Lawrenceville's students.

 

     STRIDE's leadership team--composed of seventh-and

eighth-graders-meets during the summer to plan activities for

the upcoming year. A program featuring 10 to 12 major events is

outlined at the summer planning session. STRIDE leaders meet

regularly during the school year to implement the program and

delegate responsibilities. STRIDE events--held after school

from 2:00 to 5:00--are widely publicized by STRIDE members.

Events include programs by visiting athletes who qualify as

role models, dances, videos, plays, speakers from the

community, and special sports events.

 

 

Schools

 

 

Teaching About Drug Prevention

 

 

Recommendation # 7:

 

 

     Implement a comprehensive drug prevention curriculum for

kindergarten through grade 12, teaching that drug use is wrong

and harmful, and supporting and strengthening resistance to

drugs.

 

     A model program would have these main objectives:

 

   * To value and maintain sound personal health.

 

   * To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

 

   * To resist pressures to use drugs.

 

   * To promote student activities that are drug free and offer

     healthy avenues for student interests.

 

     In developing a program, school staff should take the

following steps:

 

   * Determine curriculum content appropriate for the school's

     drug problem and grade levels.

 

   * Base the curriculum on an understanding of why children

     try drugs in order to teach them how to resist pressures

     to use drugs.

 

   * Review existing materials for possible adaptation. State

     and national organizations--and some lending

     libraries--that have an interest in drug prevention make

     available lists of materials.

 

     In implementing a program, school staff should take the

following steps:

 

   * Include students in all grades. Effective drug education

     is cumulative.

 

   * Teach about drugs in health education classes, and

     reinforce this curriculum with appropriate materials in

     classes such as social studies and science.

 

   * Develop expertise in drug prevention through training.

     Teachers should be knowledgeable about drugs, personally

     committed to opposing drug use, and skilled at eliciting

     participation by students in drug prevention efforts.

 

(For more detailed information on topics and learning

activities to incorporate in a drug prevention program, see

pages 44-49.)

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Tips for Selecting Drug Prevention Materials

 

 

     In evaluating drug prevention materials, keep the

following points in mind:

 

     Check the date of publication. Material published before

1980 may be outdated; even recently published materials may be

inaccurate.

 

     Look for "warning flag" phrases and concepts. The

following expressions, many of which appear frequently in

"pro-drug" material, falsely imply that there is a "safe" use

of mind-altering drugs: experimental use, recreational use,

social use, controlled use, responsible use, use/abuse.

 

Mood-altering is a deceptive euphemism for mind-altering.

 

     The implication of the phrase mood-altering is that only

     temporary feelings are involved. The fact is that mood

     changes are biological changes in the brain.

 

"There are no 'good' or 'bad' drugs, just improper use."

 

     This is a popular semantic camouflage in pro-drug

     literature. It confuses young people and minimizes the

     distinct chemical differences among substances.

 

"The child's own decision."

 

     Parents cannot afford to leave such hazardous choices to

     their children. It is the parents' responsibility to do

     all in their power to provide the information and the

     protection to assure their children a drug-free childhood

     and adolescence.

 

     Be alert for contradictory messages. Many authors give a

pro-drug message and then cover their tracks by including

"cautions" about how to use drugs.

 

     Make certain that the health consequences revealed in

current research are adequately described. Literature should

make these facts clear: The high potency of marijuana on the

market today makes it more dangerous than ever. THC, a

psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, is fat-soluble, and its

accumulation in the body has many adverse biological effects.

Cocaine can cause death and is one of the most addictive drugs

known. It takes less alcohol to produce impairment in youths

than in adults.

 

     Demand material that sets positive standards of behavior

for children. The message conveyed must be an expectation that

children can say no to drugs. The publication and its message

must provide the information and must support family

involvement to reinforce the child's courage to stay drug free.

 

     A fuller discussion of curriculum selection is offered in

Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and

Implementation. The guide is published by the U.S. Department

of Education and is available from the National Clearinghouse

for Alcohol and Drug Information, Box 2345 Rockville MD 20852.

 

 

Schools

 

 

Enlisting the Community's Help

 

 

Recommendation #8:

 

 

     Reach out to the community for support and assistance in

making the school's anti-drug policy and program work. Develop

collaborative arrangements in which school personnel, parents,

school boards, law enforcement officers, treatment

organizations, and private groups can work together to provide

necessary resources.

 

     School officials should recognize that they cannot solve

the drug problem by themselves. They need to enlist the

community's support for their efforts by taking the following

actions:

 

   * Increase community understanding of the problem through

     meetings, media coverage, and education programs.

 

   * Build public support for the policy; develop agreement on

     the goals of a school drug policy, including prevention

     and enforcement goals.

 

   * Educate the community about the effects and extent of the

     drug problem.

 

   * Strengthen contacts with law enforcement agencies through

     discussions about the school's specific drug problems and

     ways they can assist in drug education and enforcement.

 

   * Call on local professionals, such as physicians and

     pharmacists, to share their expertise on drug abuse as

     class lecturers.

 

   * Mobilize the resources of community groups and local

     businesses to support the program.

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Legal Questions on Search and Seizure

 

 

     In 1985, the Supreme Court for the first time analyzed the

application in the public school setting of the Fourth

Amendment prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures.

The Court sought to craft a rule that would balance the need of

school authorities to maintain order and the privacy rights of

students. The questions in this section summarize the decisions

of the Supreme Court and of lower Federal courts. School

officials should consult with legal counsel in formulating

their policies.

 

     What legal standard applies to school officials who search

students and their possessions for drugs?

 

     The Supreme Court has held that school officials may

     institute a search if there are "reasonable grounds" to

     believe that the search will reveal evidence that the

     student has violated or is violating either the law or the

     rules of the school.

 

Do school officials need a search warrant to conduct a search

for drugs?

 

     No, not if they are carrying out the search independent of

     the police and other law enforcement officials. A more

     stringent legal standard may apply if law enforcement

     officials are involved in the search.

 

How extensive can a search be?

 

     The scope of the permissible search will depend on whether

     the measures used during the search are reasonably related

     to the purpose of the search and are not excessively

     intrusive in light of the age and sex of the student being

     searched. The more intrusive the search, the greater the

     justification that will be required by the courts.

 

Do school officials have to stop a search when they find the

object of the search?

 

     Not necessarily. If a search reveals items suggesting the

     presence of other evidence of crime or misconduct, the

     school official may continue the search. For example, if a

     teacher is justifiably searching a student's purse for

     cigarettes and finds rolling papers, it will be reasonable

     (subject to any local policy to the contrary) for the

     teacher to search the rest of the purse for evidence of

     drugs.

 

Can school officials search student lockers?

 

     Reasonable grounds to believe that a particular student

     locker contains evidence of a violation of the law or

     school rules will generally justify a search of that

     locker. In addition, some courts have upheld written

     school policies that authorize school officials to inspect

     student lockers at any time.

 

(For a more detailed discussion of legal issues, see pages

50-60).

 

 

Fact Sheet

 

 

Legal Questions on Suspension and Expulsion

 

 

     The following questions and answers briefly describe

several Federal requirements that apply to the use of

suspension and expulsion as disciplinary tools in public

schools. These may not reflect all laws, policies, and judicial

precedents applicable to any given school district. School

officials should consult with legal counsel to determine the

application of these laws in their schools and to ensure

compliance with all legal requirements.

 

What Federal procedural requirements apply to suspension or

expulsion?

 

   * The Supreme Court has held that students facing suspension

     or expulsion from school are entitled under the U.S.

     Constitution to the basic due process protections of

     notice and an opportunity to be heard. The nature and

     formality of the "hearing" to be provided depend on the

     severity of the sanction being imposed.

 

   * A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to

     suspend a student for 10 days or less. Due process in that

     situation requires only that:

 

     -- the school inform the student, either orally or in

        writing, of the charges and of the evidence to support

        those charges.

 

     -- the school give the student an opportunity to deny the

        charges and present his or her side of the story.

 

     -- as a general rule, the notice to the student and a

        rudimentary hearing should precede a suspension unless

        a student's presence poses a continuing danger to

        persons or property or threatens to disrupt the

        academic process. In such cases, the notice and

        rudimentary hearing should follow as soon as possible

        after the student's removal.

 

     More formal procedures may be required for suspensions

longer than 10 days and for expulsions. In addition, Federal

law and regulations establish special rules governing

suspensions and expulsions of students with disabilities.

 

   * States and local school districts may require additional

     procedures.

 

Can students be suspended or expelled from school for use,

possession, or sale of drugs?

 

     Generally, yes. A school may suspend or expel students in

     accordance with the terms of its discipline policy. A

     school policy may provide for penalties of varying

     severity, including suspension or expulsion, to respond to

     drug-related offenses. It is helpful to be explicit about

     the types of offenses that will be punished and about the

     penalties that may be imposed for particular types of

     offenses (e.g., use, possession, or sale of drugs).

     Generally, State and local law will determine the range of

     sanctions permitted.

 

(For a more detailed discussion of legal issues, see pages

50-60.)

 

 

WHAT STUDENTS CAN DO

 

 

   * Learn about the effects of drug use, the reasons why drugs

     are harmful, and ways to resist pressures to try drugs.

 

   * Use an understanding of the danger posed by drugs to help

     other students avoid them. Encourage other students to

     resist drugs, persuade those using drugs to seek help, and

     report those selling drugs to parents and the school

     principal.

 

 

Students

 

 

Learning the Facts

 

 

Recommendation #9:

 

 

     Learn about the effects of alcohol and other drug use, the

reasons why drugs are harmful, and ways to resist pressures to

try drugs. Students can arm themselves with the knowledge to

resist drug use in the following ways:

 

   * Learning about the effects and risks of drugs.

 

   * Learning the symptoms of drug use and the names of

     organizations and individuals available to help when

     friends or family members are in trouble.

 

   * Understanding the pressures to use drugs and ways to

     counteract

 

   * Knowing the school rules on drugs and ways to help make

     the school policy work.

 

   * Knowing the school procedures for reporting drug offenses.

 

   * Knowing the laws on drug use and the penalties--for

     example, for driving under the influence of alcohol or

     other drugs--and understanding how the laws protect

     individuals and society.

 

   * Developing skill in communicating their opposition to

     drugs and their resolve to avoid drug use.

 

 

     R.H. Watkins High School of Jones County, Mississippi, has

     developed this pledge setting forth the duties and

     responsibilities of student counselors in its peer

     counseling program.

 

 

Responsibility Pledge for a Peer Counselor

R.H. Watkins High School

 

 

     As a drug education peer counselor you have the

opportunity to help the youth of our community develop to their

full potential without the interference of illegal drug use. It

is a responsibility you must not take lightly. Therefore,

please read the following responsibilities you will be expected

to fulfill next school year and discuss them with your parents

or guardians.

 

Responsibilities of a Peer Counselor

 

   * Understand and be able to clearly state your beliefs and

     attitudes about drug use among teens and adults.

 

   * Remain drug free.

 

   * Maintain an average of C or better in all classes.

 

   * Maintain a citizenship average of B or better.

 

   * Participate in some club or extracurricular activity that

     emphasizes the positive side of school life.

 

   * Successfully complete training for the program, including,

     for example, units on the identification and symptoms of

     drug abuse, history and reasons for drug abuse, and the

     legal/economic aspects of drug abuse.

 

   * Successfully present monthly programs on drug abuse in

     each of the elementary and junior high schools of the

     Laurel City school system, and to community groups,

     churches, and statewide groups as needed.

 

   * Participate in rap sessions or individual counseling

     sessions with Laurel City school students.

 

   * Attend at least one Jones County Drug Council meeting per

     year, attend the annual Drug Council Awards Banquet, work

     in the Drug Council Fair exhibit and in any Drug Council

     workshops, if needed.

 

   * Grades and credit for Drug Education will be awarded on

     successful completion of and participation in all the

     above-stated activities.

 

________________________       ____________________________

Student's Signature            Parent's or Guardian's Signature

 

 

Students

 

 

Helping to Fight Drug Use

 

 

Recommendation # 10:

 

 

     Use an understanding of the danger posed by alcohol and

other drugs to help other students avoid them. Encourage other

students to resist drugs, persuade those using drugs to seek

help, and report those selling drugs to parents and the school

principal.

 

     Although students are the primary victims of drug use in

the schools, drug use cannot be stopped or prevented unless

students actively participate in this effort.

 

     Students can help fight alcohol and other drug use in the

following ways:

 

   * Participating in discussions about the extent of the

     problem at their own school.

 

   * Supporting a strong school anti-drug policy and firm,

     consistent enforcement of rules.

 

   * Setting a positive example for fellow students and

     speaking forcefully against drug use.

 

   * Teaching other students, particularly younger ones, about

     the harmful effects of drugs.

 

   * Encouraging their parents to join with other parents to

     promote a drug-free environment outside school. Some

     successful parent groups have been started as a result of

     the pressure of a son or daughter was concerned about

     drugs.

 

   * Becoming actively involved in efforts to inform the

     community about the drug problem.

 

   * Joining in or starting a club or other activity to create

     positive, challenging ways for young people to have fun

     without alcohol and other drugs. Obtaining adult

     sponsorship for the group and publicizing its activities.

 

   * Encouraging friends who have a drug problem to seek help

     and reporting persons selling drugs to parents and the

     principal.

 

 

WHAT COMMUNITIES CAN DO

 

 

   * Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the

     expertise and financial resources of community groups and

     agencies.

 

   * Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of

     drug prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education.

     The police and courts should have well-established

     relationships with the schools.

 

 

Communities

 

 

Providing Support

 

 

Recommendation # 11:

 

 

     Help schools fight drugs by providing them with the

expertise and financial resources of community groups and

agencies.

 

     Law enforcement agencies and the courts can take the

following actions:

 

   * Provide volunteers to speak in the schools about the legal

     ramifications of alcohol and other drug use. Officers can

     encourage students to cooperate with them to stop drug

     use.

 

   * Meet with school officials to discuss alcohol and other

     drug use in the school, share information on the drug

     problem outside the school, and help school officials in

     their investigations.

 

     Social service and health agencies can take the following

actions:

 

   * Provide volunteers to speak in the school about the

     effects of drugs.

 

   * Meet with parents to discuss symptoms of drug use and to

     inform them about counseling resources.

 

   * Provide the schools with health professionals to evaluate

     students who may be potential drug users.

 

   * Provide referrals to local treatment programs for students

     who are using drugs.

 

   * Establish and conduct drug counseling and support groups

     for students.

 

     Business leaders can take the following actions:

 

   * Speak in the schools about the effects of alcohol and

     other drug use on employment.

 

   * Provide incentives for students who participate in drug

     prevention programs and lead drug-free lives.

 

   * Help schools obtain curriculum materials for their drug

     prevention program.

 

   * Sponsor drug-free activities for young people.

 

     Parent groups can take the following actions:

 

   * Mobilize others through informal discussions, door-to-door

     canvassing, and school meetings to ensure that students

     get a consistent no-drug message at home, at school, and

     in the community.

 

   * Contribute volunteers to chaperone student parties and

     other activities.

 

     Print and broadcast media can take the following actions:

 

   * Educate the community about the nature of the drug problem

     in their schools.

 

   * Publicize school efforts to combat the problem.

 

 

Project DARE

Los Angeles, California

 

 

     A collaborative effort begun in 1983 by the Los Angeles

Police Department and the Los Angeles Unified School District,

Project DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) uses uniformed

law enforcement officers in classrooms as regular instructors.

DARE officers use a drug curriculum that teaches students

resistance to peer pressure to use drugs, self-management

skills, and alternatives to drug use.

 

     DARE reaches all Los Angeles Unified School District

students from kindergarten through junior high school. DARE has

also spread outside Los Angeles--police officers from 48 States

and 1100 police agencies have received DARE training. The DARE

program is also being used by the Department of Defense

Dependents' Schools (military police serve as instructors) and

at Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools (BIA police officers serve

as instructors).

 

     In addition to providing classroom instruction, the

program arranges teacher orientation, officer-student

interaction (on playgrounds and in cafeterias, for example),

and a parent education evening at which DARE officers explain

the program to parents and provide information about symptoms

of drug use and ways to increase family communication.

 

     Studies have shown that DARE has improved students'

attitudes about themselves, increased their sense of

responsibility for themselves and to police, and strengthened

their resistance to drugs. For example, before the DARE program

began, 51 percent of fifth grade students equated drug use with

having more friends. After training, only 8 percent reported

this attitude.

 

     DARE's parent program has also changed attitudes. Before

DARE training, 61 percent of parents thought that there was

nothing parents could do about their children's use of drugs;

only 5 percent reported this opinion after the program. Before

DARE training, 32 percent of parents thought that it was all

right for children to drink alcohol at a party as long as

adults were present. After DARE, no parents reported such a

view.

 

 

Communities

 

 

Involving Law Enforcement

 

 

Recommendation # 12:

 

 

     Involve local law enforcement agencies in all aspects of

drug prevention: assessment, enforcement, and education. The

police and courts should have well-established relationships

with the schools.

 

     Community groups can take the following actions:

 

   * Support school officials who take a strong position

     against alcohol and other drug use.

 

   * Support State and local policies to keep drugs and drug

     paraphernalia away from schoolchildren.

 

   * Build a community consensus in favor of strong penalties

     for persons convicted of selling drugs, particularly for

     adults who have sold drugs to children.

 

   * Encourage programs to provide treatment to juvenile

     first-offenders while maintaining tough penalties for

     repeat offenders and drug sellers.

 

     Law enforcement agencies, in cooperation with schools, can

take the following actions:

 

   * Establish the procedures each will follow in school drug

     cases.

 

   * Provide expert personnel to participate in prevention

     activities from kindergarten through grade 12.

 

   * Secure areas around schools and see that the sale and use

     of drugs are stopped.

 

   * Provide advice and personnel to help improve security in

     the school or on school premises.

 

 

Lincoln Junior High

Washington, D.C.

 

 

     Abraham Lincoln Junior High is a modern school located in

an innercity neighborhood. Its ethnically diverse student body

has 700 students, representing more than 30 counties. The

student population is 51 percent black and 43 percent Hispanic.

Many of the students coming to Lincoln for the first time are

newly arrived immigrants from war-torn countries.

 

     Many of these newly arrived students are eager for

acceptance by their new peers and just as eager to adjust to

American culture. Teachers are keenly aware of the students'

desire to fit in and realize that it is important to let these

children know that the majority of American children do not use

drugs nor is drug use an accepted behavior. This is not an easy

task for the teachers to accomplish since the rampant drug

activity going on in their neighborhood may suggest otherwise.

 

     Lincoln's faculty-sponsored clubs are an important way

teachers support what they want the drug education program to

accomplish. To participate in any club, members must pledge to

be drug free. Two clubs are designed to develop confidence and

reinforce social and citizenship skills. Other clubs target

special interests such as the Lincoln Chess Club and LatiNegro,

a student arts group. A summer Substance Abuse Prevention

Education Camp involves nearly 100 students in activities

ranging from volley ball to dance to field trips.

 

     The staff also encourages students to help each other. The

Peer Helper Club, whose members are trained in substance abuse

prevention and leadership skills, publishes a handbook

dispensing advice and a magazine, Cuidando Nuestra Juventud

(Taking Care of Our Youth), to which the entire student body

can contribute.

 

     Another innovative way the school gets its message across

is by having the Student Response Team (SRT). This team is

comprised of ninth graders trained to become mediators. They

advertise their services within the school and get referrals

from students and teachers. Students who use the services of

the SRT must agree in advance to abide by the result of the

mediation process or be expelled from school. Mediators meet

with students in conflict at lunch or are called from class if

the matter is urgent. This multiracial team has been effective

in reducing violence and convincing peers that they don't have

to go to the streets to settle disputes.

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

 

     Drugs threaten our children's lives, disrupt our schools,

shatter families, and, in some areas, shatter communities.

Drug-related crimes overwhelm our courts, social agencies, and

police. This situation need not and must not continue.

 

     Across the United States, schools and communities have

found ways to turn the tide in the battle against drugs. The

methods they have used and the actions they have taken are

described in this volume. We know what works. We know that drug

use can be stopped.

 

     But we cannot expect the schools to do the job without the

help of parents, police, the courts, and other community

groups. Drugs will be beaten only when all of us work together

to deliver a firm, consistent message to those who would use or

sell drugs: a message that illegal drugs will not be tolerated.

It is time to join in a national effort to achieve schools

without drugs.

 

 

SPECIAL SECTIONS

 

 

Teaching About Drug Prevention

 

How the Law Can Help

 

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

 

Sources of Information

 

References

 

 

TEACHING ABOUT DRUG PREVENTION

 

 

Teaching About Drug Prevention: Sample Topics and Learning

Activities

 

 

     An effective drug prevention curriculum covers a broad set

of education objectives which are outlined in greater detail in

the Department of Education's handbook Drug Prevention

Curricula: A Guide to Selection and Implementation. This

section presents a model program for consideration by State and

local school authorities who have the responsibility to design

a curriculum that meets local needs and priorities. The program

consists of four objectives plus sample topics and learning

activities.

 

 

OBJECTIVE #1: To value and maintain sound personal health; to

understand how drugs affect health.

 

 

     An effective drug prevention education program instills

respect for a healthy body and mind and imparts knowledge of

how the body functions, how personal habits contribute to good

health, and how drugs affect the body.

 

     At the early elementary level, children learn how to care

for their bodies. Knowledge about habits, medicine, and poisons

lays the foundation for learning about drugs. Older children

begin to learn about the drug problem and study those drugs to

which they are most likely to be exposed. The curriculum for

secondary school students is increasingly drug specific as

students learn about the effects of drugs on their bodies and

on adolescent maturation. Health consequences of drug use,

including transmission of AIDS, are emphasized.

 

     Sample topics for elementary school:

 

   * The roles of nutrition, medicine, and health care

     professionals in preventing and treating disease.

 

   * The difficulties of recognizing which substances are safe

     to eat, drink, or touch; ways to learn whether a substance

     is safe: by consulting with an adult and by reading

     labels.

 

   * The effects of poisons on the body; the effects of

     medicine on body chemistry: the wrong drug may make a

     person ill.

 

   * The nature of habits: their conscious and unconscious

     development.

 

     Sample topics for secondary school:

 

   * Stress: how the body responds to stress; how drugs

     increase stress.

 

   * The chemical properties of drugs.

 

   * The effects of drugs on the circulatory, digestive,

     nervous, reproductive, and respiratory systems. The

     effects of drugs on adolescent development.

 

   * Patterns of substance abuse: the progressive effects of

     drugs on the body and mind.

 

   * What is addiction?

 

   * How to get help for a drug or alcohol problem.

 

     Children tend to be oriented toward the present and are

likely to feel invulnerable to the long-term effects of alcohol

and other drugs. For this reason, they should be taught about

the short-term effects of drug use (impact on appearance,

alertness, and coordination) as well as about the cumulative

effects.

 

     Sample learning activities for elementary school:

 

   * Make a coloring book depicting various substances. Color

     only those items that are safe to eat.

 

   * Use puppets to dramatize what can happen when drugs are

     used.

 

   * Write stories about what to do if a stranger offers candy,

     pills, or a ride. Discuss options in class.

 

   * Try, for a time, to break a bad habit. The teacher

     emphasizes that it is easier not to start a bad habit than

     to break one.

 

     Sample learning activities for secondary school:

 

   * Discuss the properties of alcohol and other drugs with

     community experts: physicians, scientists, pharmacists, or

     law enforcement officers.

 

   * Interview social workers in drug treatment centers. Visit

     an open meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics

     Anonymous. These activities should be open only to mature

     students; careful preparation and debriefing are

     essential.

 

   * Research the drug problem at school, in the community, or

     in the sports and entertainment fields.

 

   * Design a true-false survey about drug myths and facts;

     conduct the survey with classmates and analyze the

     results.

 

   * Develop an accessible lending library on drugs, well

     stocked with up-to-date and carefully chosen materials.

 

     When an expert visits a class, both the class and the

expert should be prepared in advance. Students should learn

about the expert's profession and prepare questions to ask

during the visit. The expert should know what the objectives of

the session are and how the session fits into previous and

subsequent learning. The expert should participate in a

discussion or classroom activity, not simply appear as a

speaker.

 

 

OBJECTIVE #2: To respect laws and rules prohibiting drugs.

 

 

     The program teaches children to respect rules and laws as

the embodiment of social values and as tools for protecting

individuals and society. It provides specific instruction about

laws concerning drugs.

 

     Students in the early grades learn to identify rules and

to understand their importance, while older students learn

about the school drug code and laws regulating drugs.

 

     Sample topics for elementary school:

 

   * What rules are and what would happen without them.

 

   * What values are and why they should guide behavior.

 

   * What responsible behavior is.

 

   * Why it is wrong to take drugs.

 

     Sample topics for secondary school:

 

   * Student responsibilities in promoting a drug-free school.

 

   * Local, State, and Federal laws on controlled substances;

     why these laws exist and how they are enforced.

 

   * Legal consequences of drug use; penalties for driving

     under the influence of alcohol or drugs; the relationship

     between drugs and other crimes.

 

   * Personal and societal costs of drug use.

 

     Sample learning activities for elementary school:

 

   * Use stories and pictures to identify rules and laws in

     everyday life (e.g., lining up for recess).

 

   * Imagine how to get to school in the absence of traffic

     laws; try to play a game that has no rules.

 

   * Name some things that are important to adults and then

     list rules they have made about these things. (This

     activity helps explain values.)

 

   * Solve a simple problem (e.g., my sister hits me, or my

     math grades are low). Discuss which solutions are best and

     why.

 

   * Discuss school drug policies with the principal and other

     staff members. Learn how students can help make the policy

     work better.

 

   * Explain the connection between drug users, drug dealers,

     and drug traffickers and law enforcement officers whose

     lives are placed at risk or lost in their efforts to stop

     the drug trade.

 

     Sample learning activities for secondary school:

 

   * Resolve hypothetical school situations involving drug use.

     Analyze the consequences for the school, other students,

     and the individuals involved.

 

   * Collect information about accidents, crimes, and other

     problems related to alcohol and other drugs. Analyze how

     the problem might have been prevented and how the incident

     affected the individuals involved.

 

   * Conduct research projects. Interview members of the

     community such as attorneys, judges, police officers,

     State highway patrol officers, and insurance agents about

     the effects of alcohol and other drug use on the daily

     lives of teenagers and their families.

 

   * Draft a legislative petition proposing enactment of a

     State law on drug use. Participate in a mock trial or

     legislative session patterned after an actual trial or

     debate. Through these activities, students learn to

     develop arguments on behalf of drug laws and their

     enforcement.

 

 

OBJECTIVE #3: To recognize and resist pressures to use drugs.

 

 

     Social influences play a key role in encouraging children

to try alcohol and other drugs. Pressures to use drugs come

from internal sources, such as a child's desire to feel

included in a group or to demonstrate independence, and

external influences, such as the opinions and example of

friends, older children and adults, and media messages.

 

     Students must learn to identify these pressures. They must

then learn how to counteract messages to use drugs and gain

practice in saying no. The education program emphasizes

influences on behavior, responsible decision making, and

techniques for resisting pressures to use drugs.

 

     Sample topics for elementary through high school:

 

   * The influence of popular culture on behavior.

 

   * The influence of peers, parents, and other important

     individuals on a student's behavior; ways in which the

     need to feel accepted by others influences behavior.

 

   * Ways to make responsible decisions and to deal

     constructively with disagreeable moments and pressures.

 

   * Reasons for not taking drugs.

 

   * Situations in which students may be pressured into using

     alcohol and other drugs.

 

   * Ways of resisting pressure to use drugs.

 

   * Effects of drug use on family and friends, and benefits of

     resisting pressure to use drugs.

 

     Sample learning activities for elementary through high

school:

 

   * Describe recent personal decisions. In small groups,

     discuss what considerations influenced the decision (e.g.,

     opinions of family or friends, beliefs, desire to be

     popular) and analyze choices and consequences.

 

   * Examine ads for cigarettes, over-the-counter drugs, and

     alcohol, deciding what images are being projected and

     whether the ads are accurate.

 

   * Read stories about famous people who held to their beliefs

     in the face of opposition. Students can discuss how these

     people withstood the pressure and what they accomplished.

 

   * Give reasons for not taking drugs. Discuss with a health

     educator or drug counselor the false arguments for using

     drugs. Develop counterarguments in response to typical

     messages or pressures on behalf of drug use.

 

   * Given a scenario depicting pressure to use drugs, act out

     ways of resisting (simply refusing, giving a reason,

     leaving the scene, etc.). Students should then practice

     these techniques repeatedly. Demonstrate ways of resisting

     pressures, using older students specially trained as peer

     teachers.

 

   * Present scenarios involving drug-related problems (e.g.,

     learning that another student is selling drugs, learning

     that a sibling is using drugs, or being offered a drive

     home by a friend under the influence of drugs). Students

     practice what they would do and discuss to whom they would

     turn for help. Teachers should discuss and evaluate the

     appropriateness of student responses.

 

   * Discuss how it feels to resist pressures to take drugs.

     Hold a poster contest to depict the benefits derived both

     from not using and from saying no (e.g., being in control,

     increased respect from others, self-confidence).

 

 

OBJECTIVE #4: To promote activities that reinforce the

positive, drug-free elements of student life.

 

 

     School activities that provide opportunities for students

to have fun without alcohol and other drugs, and to contribute

to the school community, build momentum for peer pressure not

to use drugs. These school activities also nurture positive

examples by giving older students opportunities for leadership

related to drug prevention.

 

     Sample activities:

 

   * Make participation in school activities dependent on an

     agreement not to use alcohol and other drugs.

 

   * Ensure that alcohol and other drugs will not be available

     at school-sponsored activities or parties. Plan these

     events carefully to be certain that students have

     attractive alternatives to drug use.

 

   * Give students opportunities for leadership. They can be

     trained to serve as peer leaders in drug prevention

     programs, write plays, or design posters for younger

     students. Activities such as these provide youthful role

     models who demonstrate the importance of not using drugs.

     Youth training programs are available that prepare

     students to assist in drug education and provide

     information on how to form drug-free youth groups.

 

   * Form action teams for school improvement with membership

     limited to students who are drug free. These action teams

     campaign against drug use, design special drug-free

     events, conduct and follow up on surveys of school needs,

     help teachers with paperwork, tutor other students, or

     improve the appearance of the school. Through these

     activities, students develop a stake in their school, have

     the opportunity to serve others, and have positive reasons

     to reject drug use.

 

   * Survey community resources that offer help for alcohol or

     other drug problems or ways to cope with drug use by a

     family member.

 

   * Create a program in the school for support of students

     returning from treatment.

 

 

HOW THE LAW CAN HELP

 

 

     Federal law accords school officials broad authority to

regulate student conduct and supports reasonable and fair

disciplinary action. In 1984, the Supreme Court reaffirmed that

the constitutional rights of students in school are not

"automatically coextensive with the rights of adults in other

settings."1 Rather, recognizing that "in recent years . .. drug

use and violent crime in the schools have become major social

problems," the Court has emphasized the importance of effective

enforcement of school rules.2 On the whole, a school "is

allowed to determine the methods of student discipline and need

not exercise its discretion with undue timidity."3

An effective campaign against drug use requires a basic

understanding of legal techniques for searching and seizing

drugs and drug-related material, for suspending and expelling

students involved with drugs, and for assisting law enforcement

officials in the prosecution of drug offenders. Such knowledge

will help schools identify and penalize students who use or

sell drugs at school and enable school officials to uncover the

evidence needed to support prosecutions under Federal and State

criminal laws that contain strong penalties for drug use and

sale. In many cases, school officials can be instrumental in

successful prosecutions.

 

     In addition to the general Federal statutes that make it a

crime to possess or distribute a controlled substance, there

are special Federal laws designed to protect children and

schools from drugs:

 

   * An important part of the Controlled Substances Act makes

     it a Federal crime to sell drugs in or near a public or

     private elementary, secondary, vocational, or

     postsecondary school. Under this "schoolhouse" law, sales

     within 1,000 feet of a school are punishable by up to

     double the sentence that would apply if the sale occurred

     elsewhere. Even more serious punishments are available for

     repeat offenders.4

 

   * Distribution or sale to minors of controlled substances is

     also a Federal crime. When anyone age 18 or over sells

     drugs to anyone under 21, the seller runs the risk that he

     or she will receive up to double the sentence that would

     apply to a sale to an adult. Here too, more serious

     penalties can be imposed on repeat offenders.5

 

     By working with Federal and State prosecutors in their

     area, schools can help to ensure that these laws and others

     are used to make children and schools off-limits to drugs.

 

     The following pages describe in general terms the Federal

     laws applicable to the development of an effective school

     drug policy. This section is not a compendium of all laws

     that may apply to a school district, and it is not intended

     to provide legal advice on all issues that may arise.

     School officials must recognize that many legal issues in

     the school context are also governed, in whole or in part,

     by State and local laws, which, given their diversity,

     cannot be covered here. Advice should be sought from legal

     counsel in order to understand the applicable laws and to

     ensure that the school's policies and actions make full

     use of the available methods of enforcement.

 

     Most private schools, particularly those that receive

     little or no financial assistance from public sources and

     are not associated with a public entity, enjoy a greater

     degree of legal flexibility with respect to combating the

     sale and use of illegal drugs. Depending on the terms of

     their contracts with enrolled students, such schools may

     be largely free of the restrictions that normally apply to

     drug searches or the suspension or expulsion of student

     drug users. Private school officials should consul legal

     counsel to determine what enforcement measures may be

     available to them.

 

     School procedures should reflect the available legal means

     for combating drug use. These procedures should be known to

     and understood by school administrators and teachers as

     well as by students, parents, and law enforcement

     officials. Everyone should be aware that school authorities

     have broad power within the law to take full, appropriate,

     and effective action against drug offenders. Additional

     sources of information on legal issues in school drug

     policy are listed at the end of this handbook.

 

 

SEARCHING FOR DRUGS WITHIN THE SCHOOL

 

 

     In some circumstances, the most important tool for

controlling drug use is an effective program of drug searches.

School administrators should not condone the presence of drugs

anywhere on school property. The presence of any drugs or

drug-related materials in school can mean only one thing--that

drugs are being used or distributed in school. Schools

committed to fighting drugs should do everything they can to

determine whether school grounds are being used to facilitate

the possession, use, or distribution of drugs, and to prevent

such crimes.

 

     To institute an effective drug search policy in schools

with a substantial problem, school officials can take several

steps. First, they can identify the specific areas in the

school where drugs are likely to be found or used. Student

lockers, bathrooms, and "smoking areas" are obvious candidates.

Second, school administrators can clearly announce in writing

at the beginning of the school year that these areas will be

subject to unannounced searches and that students should

consider such areas "public" rather than "private." The more

clearly a school specifies, that these portions of the school's

property are public, the less likely it is that a court will

conclude that students retain any reasonable expectation of

privacy in these places and the less justification will be

needed to search such locations.

 

     School officials should therefore formulate and

disseminate to all students and staff a written policy that

will permit an effective program of drug searches. Courts have

usually upheld locker searches where schools have established

written policies under which the school retains joint control

over student lockers, maintains duplicate or master keys for

all lockers, and reserves the right to inspect lockers at any

time.6 Although these practices have not become established law

in every part of the country, it will be easier to justify

locker searches in schools that have such policies. Moreover,

the mere existence of such policies can have a salutory effect.

If students know that their lockers may be searched, drug users

will find it much more difficult to obtain drugs in school.

 

     The effectiveness of such searches may be improved with

the use of specially trained dogs. Courts have generally held

that the use of dogs to detect drugs on or in objects such as

lockers, ventilators, or desk, as opposed to persons is not a

"search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment.7

Accordingly, school administrators are generally justified in

using dogs in this way.

 

     It is important to remember that any illicit drugs and

drug-related items discovered at school are evidence that may

be used in a criminal trial. School officials should be

careful, first, to protect the evidentiary integrity of such

seizures by making sure that the items are obtained in

permissible searches, because unlawfully acquired evidence will

not be admissible in criminal proceedings. Second, school

officials should work closely with local law enforcement

officials to preserve, in writing, the nature and circumstances

of any seizure of drug contraband. In a criminal prosecution,

the State must prove that the items produced as evidence in

court are the same items that were seized from the suspect.

Thus, the State must establish a "chain of custody" over the

seized items which accounts for the possession of the evidence

from the moment of its seizure to the moment it is introduced

in court. School policy regarding the disposition of

drug-related items should include procedures for the custody

and safekeeping of drugs and drug-related materials prior to

their removal by the police and procedures for recording the

circumstances regarding the seizure.

 

 

Searching Students

 

 

     In some circumstances, teachers or other school personnel

will wish to search a student whom they believe to be in

possession of drugs. The Supreme Court has stated that searches

may be carried out according to "the dictates of reason and

common sense."8 The Court has recognized that the need of

school authorities to maintain order justifies searches that

might otherwise be unreasonable if undertaken by police

officers or in the larger community. Thus the Court has held

that school officials, unlike the police, do not need "probable

cause" to conduct a search. Nor do they need a search warrant.9

 

     Under the Supreme Court's ruling:

 

   * School officials may institute a search if there are

     "reasonable grounds" to believe that the search will

     reveal evidence that the student has violated or is

     violating either the law or the rules of the school.

 

   * The extent of the permissible search will depend on

     whether the measures used are reasonably related to the

     purpose of the search and are not excessively intrusive in

     light of the age and sex of the student.

 

   * School officials are not required to obtain search

     warrants when they carry out searches independent of the

     police and other law enforcement officials. A more

     stringent legal standard may apply if law enforcement

     officials are involved in the search.

 

 

Interpretation of "Reasonable Grounds"

 

 

     Lower courts are beginning to interpret and apply the

"reasonable grounds" standard in the school setting. From these

cases it appears that courts will require more than general

suspicion, curiosity, rumor, or a hunch to justify searching

students or their possessions. Factors that will help sustain a

search include the observation of specific and describable

behavior or activities leading one reasonably to believe that a

given student is engaging in or has engaged in prohibited

conduct. The more specific the evidence in support of searching

a particular student, the more likely the search will be

upheld. For example, courts using a "reasonable grounds" (or

similar) standard have upheld the right of school officials to

search the following:

 

   * A student's purse, after a teacher saw her smoking in a

     restroom and the student denied having smoked or being a

     smoker.10

 

   * A student's purse, after several other students said that

     she had been distributing firecrackers.11

 

   * A student's pockets, based on a phone tip about drugs from

     an anonymous source believed to have previously provided

     accurate information.12

 

 

Scope of Permissible Search

 

 

     School officials are authorized to conduct searches within

reasonable limits. The Supreme Court has described two aspects

of these limits. First, when officials conduct a search, they

must use only measures that are reasonably related to the

purpose of the search; second, the search may not be

excessively intrusive in light of the age or sex of the

student.

 

     For example, if a teacher believes he or she has seen one

student passing a marijuana cigarette to another student, the

teacher might reasonably search the students and any nearby

belongings in which the students might have tried to hide the

drug. If it turns out that what the teacher saw was a stick of

gum, the teacher would have no justification for any further

search for drugs.

 

     The more intrusive the search, the greater the

justification that will be required by the courts. A search of

a student's jacket or bookbag can often be justified as

reasonable. At the other end of the spectrum, strip searches

are considered a highly intrusive invasion of individual

privacy and are viewed with disfavor by the courts (although

even these searches have been upheld in certain extraordinary

circumstances).

 

     School officials do not necessarily have to stop a search

if they find what they are looking for. If the search of a

student reveals items that create reasonable grounds for

suspecting that the student may also possess other evidence of

crime or misconduct, the school officials may continue the

search. For example, if a teacher justifiably searches a

student's purse for cigarettes and finds rolling papers like

those used for marijuana cigarettes, it will then be reasonable

for the teacher to search the rest of the purse for other

evidence of drugs.

 

 

Consent

 

 

     If a student consents to a search, the search is

permissible, regardless of whether there would otherwise be

reasonable grounds for the search. To render such a search

valid, however, the student must give consent knowingly and

voluntarily.

 

     Establishing whether the student's consent was voluntary

can be difficult, and the burden is on the school officials to

prove voluntary consent. If a student agrees to be searched out

of fear or as a result of other coercion, that consent will

probably be found invalid. Similarly, if school officials

indicate that a student must agree to a search or if the

student is very young or otherwise unaware that he or she has

the right to object, the student's consent will also be held

invalid. School officials may find it helpful to explain to

students that they do not have to consent to a search. In some

cases, standard consent forms may be useful.

 

     If a student is asked to consent to a search and refuses,

that refusal does not mean that the search may not be

conducted. Rather, in the absence of consent, school officials

retain the authority to conduct a search when there are

reasonable grounds to justify it, as described previously.

 

 

Special Types of Student Searches

 

 

     Schools with severe drug problems may occasionally wish to

resort to more intrusive searches, such as the use of trained

dogs or urinalysis, to screen students for drug use. The

Supreme Court has yet to address these issues. The following

paragraphs explain the existing rulings on these subjects by

other courts:

 

   * Specially trained dogs. The few courts that have

     considered this issue disagree as to whether the use of a

     specially trained dog to detect drugs on students

     constitutes a search within the meaning of the Fourth

     Amendment. Some courts have held that a dog's sniffing of

     a student is a search, and that, in the school setting,

     individualized grounds for reasonable suspicion are

     required in order for such a "sniff-search" to be held

     constitutional.13 Under this standard, a blanket search of

     a school's entire student population by specially trained

     dogs would be prohibited.

 

     At least one other court has held that the use of trained

     dogs does not constitute a search, and has permitted the

     use of such dogs without individualized grounds for

     suspicion.14 Another factor that courts may consider is

     the way that the dogs detect the presence of drugs. In

     some instances, the dogs are merely led down hallways or

     classroom aisles. In contrast, having the dogs actually

     touch parts of the students' bodies is more intrusive and

     would probably require specific justification.

 

     Courts have generally held that the use of specially

     trained dogs to detect drugs on objects, as opposed to

     persons, is not a search within the meaning of the Fourth

     Amendment. Therefore, school officials may often be able

     to use dogs to inspect student lockers and school

     property.15

 

   * Drug testing. The use of urinalysis or other tests to

     screen students for drugs is a relatively new phenomenon

     and the law in this area is still evolving. Few courts

     have considered the use of urinalysis to screen public

     school students for drugs, and those courts that have done

     so have reached mixed results.16 The permissibility of

     drug testing of students has not yet been determined under

     all circumstances, although drug testing of adults has

     been upheld in some settings.

 

 

SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION

 

 

     A school policy may lawfully provide for penalties of

varying severity, including suspension and expulsion, to

respond to drug-related offenses. The Supreme Court has held

that because schools "need to be able to impose disciplinary

sanctions for a wide range of unanticipated conduct disruptive

of the educational process," a school's disciplinary rules need

not be so detailed as a criminal code.17 Nonetheless, it is

helpful for school policies to be explicit about the types of

offenses that will be punished and about the penalties that may

be imposed for each of these (e.g., use, possession, or sale of

drugs). State and local law will usually determine the range of

sanctions that is permissible. In general, courts will require

only that the penalty imposed for drug-related misconduct be

rationally related to the severity of the offense.

 

     School officials should not forget that they have

jurisdiction to impose punishment for some drug-related

offenses that occur off-campus. Depending on State and local

laws, schools are often able to punish conduct at off-campus,

school-sponsored events as well as off-campus conduct that has

a direct and immediate effect on school activities.

 

 

Procedural Guidelines

 

 

     Students facing suspension or expulsion from school are

entitled under the U.S. Constitution and most State

constitutions to commonsense due process protections of notice

and an opportunity to be heard. Because the Supreme Court has

recognized that a school's ability to maintain order would be

impeded if formal procedures were required every time school

authorities sought to discipline a student, the Court has held

that the nature and formality of the "hearing" will depend on

the severity of the sanction being imposed.

 

     A formal hearing is not required when a school seeks to

suspend a student for 10 days or less.18 The Supreme Court has

held that due process in that situation requires only that:

 

   * The school must inform the student, either orally or in

     writing, of the charges against him or her and of the

     evidence to support those charges.

 

   * The school must give the student an opportunity to deny

     the charges and present his or her side of the story.

 

   * As a general rule, this notice and rudimentary hearing

     should precede a suspension. However, a student whose

     presence poses a continuing danger to persons or property

     or an ongoing threat of disrupting the academic process

     may be immediately removed from school. In such a

     situation, the notice and rudimentary hearing should

     follow as soon as possible.

 

     The Supreme Court has also stated that more formal

procedures may be required for suspensions longer than 10 days

and for expulsions. Although the Court has not established

specific procedures to be followed in those situations, other

Federal courts have set the following guidelines for

expulsions.19 These guidelines would apply to suspensions

longer than 10 days as well:

 

   * The student must be notified in writing of the specific

     charges against him or her which, if proven, would justify

     expulsion.

 

   * The student should be given the names of the witnesses

     against him or her and an oral or written report on the

     facts to which each witness will testify.

 

   * The student should be given the opportunity to present a

     defense against the charges and to produce witnesses or

     testimony on his or her behalf.

 

     Many States have laws governing the procedures required

for suspensions and expulsions. Because applicable statutes and

judicial rulings vary across the country, local school

districts may enjoy a greater or lesser degree of flexibility

in establishing procedures for suspensions and expulsions.

 

     School officials must also be aware of the special

procedures that apply to suspension or expulsion of students

with disabilities under Federal law and regulations.20

 

 

Effect of Criminal Proceedings Against a Student

 

 

     A school may usually pursue disciplinary action against a

student regardless of the status of any outside criminal

prosecution. That is, Federal law does not require the school

to await the outcome of the criminal prosecution before

initiating proceedings to suspend or expel a student or to

impose whatever other penalty is appropriate for the violation

of the school's rules. In addition, a school is generally free

under Federal law to discipline a student when there is

evidence that the student has violated a school rule, even if a

juvenile court has acquitted (or convicted) the student or if

local authorities have declined to prosecute criminal charges

stemming from the same incident. Schools may wish to discuss

this subject with counsel.

 

 

Effect of Expulsion

 

 

     State and local law will determine the effect of expelling

a student from school. Some State laws require the provision of

alternative schooling for students below a certain age. In

other areas, expulsion may mean the removal from public schools

for the balance of the school year or even the permanent denial

of access to the public school system.

 

 

CONFIDENTIALITY OF EDUCATION RECORDS

 

 

     To rid their schools of drugs, school officials will

periodically need to report drug-related crimes to police and

to help local law enforcement authorities detect and prosecute

drug offenders. In doing so, schools will need to take steps to

ensure compliance with Federal and State laws governing

confidentiality of student records.

 

     The Federal law that addresses this issue is the Family

Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA),21 which applies to

any school that receives Federal funding and which limits the

disclosure of certain information about students that is

contained in education records.22 Under FERPA, disclosure of

information in education records to individuals or entities

other than parents, students, and school officials is

permissible only in specified situations.23 In many cases,

unless the parents or an eligible student24 provides written

consent, FERPA will limit a school's ability to turn over

education records or to disclose information from them to the

police. Such disclosure is permitted, however, if (1) it is

required by a court order or subpoena, or (2) it is warranted

by a health and safety emergency. In the first of these two

cases, reasonable efforts must be made to notify the student's

parents before the disclosure is made. FERPA also permits

disclosure if a State law enacted before November 19, 1974,

specifically requires disclosure to State and local officials.

 

     Schools should be aware, however, that because FERPA

governs only the information in education records, it does not

limit disclosure of other information. Thus, school employees

are free to disclose any information of which they become aware

through personal observation. For example, a teacher who

witnesses a drug transaction may, when the police arrive,

report what he or she witnessed. Similarly, evidence seized

from a student during a search is not an education record and

may be turned over to the police without constraint.

 

     State laws and school policies may impose additional, and

sometimes more restrictive, requirements regarding the

disclosure of information about students. Because this area of

the law is complicated, it is especially important that an

attorney be involved in formulating school policy under FERPA

and applicable State laws.

 

 

OTHER LEGAL ISSUES

 

 

Lawsuits Against Schools or School Of Officials

 

 

     Disagreements between parents or students and school

officials about disciplinary measures usually can be resolved

informally. Occasionally, however, a school's decisions and

activities relating to disciplinary matters are the subject of

lawsuits by parents or students against administrators,

teachers, and school systems. For these reasons, it is

advisable that school districts obtain adequate insurance

coverage for themselves and for all school personnel for

liability arising from disciplinary actions.

 

     Suits may be brought in Federal or State court; typically,

they are based on a claim that a student's constitutional or

statutory rights have been violated. Frequently, these suits

will seek to revoke the school district's imposition of some

disciplinary measure, for example, by ordering the

reinstatement of a student who has been expelled or suspended.

Suits may also attempt to recover money damages from the school

district or the employee involved, or both; however, court

awards of money damages are extremely rare. Moreover, although

there can be no guarantee of a given result in any particular

case, courts in recent years have tended to discourage such

litigation,

 

     In general, disciplinary measures imposed reasonably and

in accordance with established legal requirements will be

upheld by the courts. As a rule, Federal judges will not

substitute their interpretations of school rules or regulations

for those of local school authorities or otherwise second-guess

reasonable decisions by school officials.25 In addition, school

officials are entitled to a qualified good-faith immunity from

personal liability for damages for having violated a student's

Federal constitutional or civil rights.26 When this immunity

applies, it shields school officials from any personal

liability for money damages. Thus, as a general matter,

personal liability is very rare, because officials should not

be held personally liable unless their actions are clearly

unlawful, unreasonable, or arbitrary.

 

     When a court does award damages, the award may be

"compensatory" or "punitive." Compensatory damages are awarded

to compensate the student for injuries actually suffered as a

result of the violation of his or her rights and cannot be

based upon the abstract "value" or "importance" of the

constitutional rights in question.27 The burden is on the

student to prove that he or she suffered actual injury as a

result of the deprivation. Thus, a student who is suspended,

but not under the required procedures, will not be entitled to

compensation if the student would have been suspended had a

proper hearing been held. If the student cannot prove that the

failure to hold a hearing itself caused him or her some

compensable harm, then the student is entitled to no more than

nominal damages, such as $1.00.28 "Punitive damages" are

awarded to punish the perpetrator of the injury. Normally,

punitive damages are awarded only when the conduct in question

is malicious, unusually reckless, or otherwise reprehensible.

 

     Parents and students can also claim that actions by a

school or school officials have violated State law. For

example, it can be asserted that a teacher "assaulted" a

student in violation of a State criminal law. The procedures

and standards in actions involving such violations are

determined by each State. Some States provide a qualified

immunity from tort liability under standards similar to the

"good faith" immunity in Federal civil rights actions. Other

States provide absolute immunity under their law for actions

taken in the course of a school official's duties.

 

 

Nondiscrimination in Enforcement of Discipline

 

 

     Federal law applicable to programs or activities receiving

Federal financial assistance prohibits school officials who are

administering discipline from discriminating against students

on the basis of race, color, national origin, or sex. Schools

should therefore administer their discipline policies

evenhandedly, without regard to such considerations. Thus, as a

general matter, students with similar disciplinary records who

violate the same rule in the same way should be treated

similarly. For example, if male and female students with no

prior record of misbehavior are caught together smoking

marijuana, it would not, in the absence of other relevant

factors, be advisable for the school to suspend the male

student for 10 days while imposing only an afternoon detention

on the female student. Such divergent penalties for the same

offense may be appropriate, however, if the student who

received the harsher punishment had a history of misconduct or

committed other infractions after this first confrontation with

school authorities.

 

     School officials should also be aware of and adhere to the

special rules and procedures for the disciplining of students

with disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities

Education Act, 20 U.S.C. 1400-20 and Section 504 of the

Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. 794. (For legal

citations, see Reference Section p. 84.)

 

 

RESOURCES

 

 

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

 

 

TOBACCO

 

 

Effects

 

 

     The smoking of tobacco products is the chief avoidable

cause of death in our society. Smokers are more likely than

nonsmokers to contract heart disease--some 170,000 die each

year from smoking-related coronary heart disease. Lung, larynx,

esophageal, bladder, pancreatic, and kidney cancers also strike

smokers at increased rates. Some 30 percent of cancer deaths

(130,000 per year) are linked to smoking. Chronic obstructive

lung diseases such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis are 10

times more likely to occur among smokers than among nonsmokers.

 

     Smoking during pregnancy also poses serious risks.

Spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weights, and

fetal and infant deaths are all more likely to occur when the

pregnant woman/mother is a smoker.

 

     Cigarette smoke contains some 4,000 chemicals, several of

which are known carcinogens. Other toxins and irritants found

in smoke can produce eye, nose, and throat irritations. Carbon

monoxide, another component of cigarette smoke, combines with

hemoglobin in the blood stream to form carboxyhemoglobin, a

substance that interferes with the body's ability to obtain and

use oxygen.

 

     Perhaps the most dangerous substance in tobacco smoke is

nicotine. Although it is implicated in the onset of heart

attacks and cancer, its most dangerous role is reinforcing and

strengthening the desire to smoke. Because nicotine is highly

addictive, addicts find it very difficult to stop smoking. Of

1,000 typical smokers, fewer than 20 percent succeed in

stopping on the first try.

 

     Although the harmful effects of smoking cannot be

questioned, people who quit can make significant strides in

repairing damage done by smoking. For pack-a-day smokers, the

increased risk of heart attack dissipates after 10 years. The

likelihood of contracting lung cancer as a result of smoking

can also be greatly reduced by quitting.

 

 

ALCOHOL

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in

behavior. Even low doses significantly impair the judgment and

coordination required to drive a car safely, increasing the

likelihood that the driver will be involved in an accident. Low

to moderate doses of alcohol also increase the incidence of a

variety of aggressive acts, including spouse and child abuse.

Moderate to high doses of alcohol cause marked impairments in

higher mental functions, severely altering a person's ability

to learn and remember information. Very high doses cause

respiratory depression and death. If combined with other

depressants of the central nervous system, much lower doses of

alcohol will produce the effects just described.

 

     Repeated use of alcohol can lead to dependence. Sudden

cessation of alcohol intake is likely to produce withdrawal

symptoms, including severe anxiety, tremors, hallucinations,

and convulsions. Alcohol withdrawal can be life-threatening.

Long-term consumption of large quantities of alcohol,

particularly when combined with poor nutrition, can also lead

to permanent damage to vital organs such as the brain and the

liver.

 

     Mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy may give birth

to infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. These infants have

irreversible physical abnormalities and mental retardation. In

addition, research indicates that children of alcoholic parents

are at greater risk than other youngsters of becoming

alcoholics.

 

 

CANNABIS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     All forms of cannabis have negative physical and mental

effects. Several regularly observed physical effects of

cannabis are a substantial increase in the heart rate,

bloodshot eyes, a dry mouth and throat, and increased appetite.

 

     Use of cannabis may impair or reduce short-term memory and

comprehension, alter sense of time, and reduce ability to

perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination, such as

driving a car. Research also shows that students do not retain

knowledge when they are "high." Motivation and cognition may be

altered, making the acquisition of new information difficult.

Marijuana can also produce paranoia and psychosis.

 

     Because users often inhale the unfiltered smoke deeply and

then hold it in their lungs as long as possible, marijuana is

damaging to the lungs and pulmonary system. Marijuana smoke

contains more cancer-causing agents than tobacco smoke.

 

     Long-term users of cannabis may develop psychological

dependence and require more of the drug to get the same effect.

The drug can become the center of their lives.

 

 

 

INHALANTS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     The immediate negative effects of inhalants include

nausea, sneezing, coughing, nosebleeds, fatigue, lack of

coordination, and loss of appetite. Solvents and aerosol sprays

also decrease the heart and respiratory rates and impair

judgment. Amyl and butyl nitrite cause rapid pulse, headaches,

and involuntary passing of urine and feces. Long-term use may

result in hepatitis or brain damage.

 

     Deeply inhaling the vapors, or using large amounts over a

short time, may result in disorientation, violent behavior,

unconsciousness, or death. High concentrations of inhalants can

cause suffocation by displacing the oxygen in the lungs or by

depressing the central nervous system to the point that

breathing stops.

 

     Long-term use can cause weight loss, fatigue, electrolyte

imbalance, and muscle fatigue. Repeated sniffing of

concentrated vapors over time can permanently damage the

nervous system.

 

 

 

COCAINE

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Cocaine stimulates the central nervous system. Its

immediate effects include dilated pupils and elevated blood

pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature.

Occasional use can cause a stuffy or runny nose, while chronic

use can ulcerate the mucous membrane of the nose. Injecting

cocaine with contaminated equipment can cause AIDS, hepatitis,

and other diseases. Preparation of freebase, which involves the

use of volatile solvents, can result in death or injury from

fire or explosion. Cocaine can produce psychological and

physical dependency, a feeling that the user cannot function

without the drug. In addition, tolerance develops rapidly.

 

     Crack or freebase rock is extremely addictive, and its

effects are felt within 10 seconds. The physical effects

include dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, elevated blood

pressure, insomnia, loss of appetite, tactile hallucinations,

paranoia, and seizures.

 

     The use of cocaine can cause death by cardiac arrest or

respiratory failure.

 

 

 

OTHER STIMULANTS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Stimulants can cause increased heart and respiratory

rates, elevated blood pressure, dilated pupils, and decreased

appetite. In addition, users may experience sweating, headache,

blurred vision, dizziness, sleeplessness, and anxiety.

Extremely high doses can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat,

tremors, loss of coordination, and even physical collapse. An

amphetamine injection creates a sudden increase in blood

pressure that can result in stroke, very high fever, or heart

failure.

 

     In addition to the physical effects, users report feeling

restless, anxious, and moody. Higher doses intensify the

effects. Persons who use large amounts of amphetamines over a

long period of time can develop an amphetamine psychosis that

includes hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia. These

symptoms usually disappear when drug use ceases.

 

 

 

DEPRESSANTS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the

effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and

relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred

speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large

doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The

combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects

of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks.

 

     The use of depressants can cause both physical and

psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a

tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the

quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking

large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from

restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety to convulsions and death.

 

     Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during

pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show

withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects

and behavioral problems also may result.

 

 

 

HALLUCINOGENS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Phencyclidine (PCP) interrupts the functions of the

neocortex, the section of the brain that controls the intellect

and keeps instincts in check. Because the drug blocks pain

receptors, violent PCP episodes may result in self-inflicted

injuries.

 

     The effects of PCP vary, but users frequently report a

sense of distance and estrangement. Time and body movement are

slowed down. Muscular coordination worsens and senses are

dulled. Speech is blocked and incoherent.

 

     Chronic users of PCP report persistent memory problems and

speech difficulties. Some of these effects may last 6 months to

a year following prolonged daily use. Mood

disorders--depression, anxiety, and violent behavior--also

occur. In later stages of chronic use, users often exhibit

paranoid and violent behavior and experience hallucinations.

Large doses may produce convulsions and coma, as well as heart

and lung failure.

 

     Lysergic acid {LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin cause

illusions and hallucinations. The physical effects may include

dilated pupils, elevated body temperature, increased heart rate

and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, and

tremors.

 

     Sensations and feelings may change rapidly. It is common

to have a bad psychological reaction to LSD, mescaline, and

psilocybin. The user may experience panic, confusion,

suspicion, anxiety, and loss of control. Delayed effects, or

flashbacks, can occur even after use has ceased.

 

 

 

NARCOTICS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Narcotics initially produce a feeling of euphoria that

often is followed by drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Users

also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and

itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing,

clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possible death.

Tolerance to narcotics develops rapidly and dependence is

likely. The use of contaminated syringes may result in disease

such as AIDS, endocarditis, and hepatitis. Addiction in

pregnant women can lead to premature, stillborn, or addicted

infants who experience severe withdrawal symptoms.

 

 

 

DESIGNER DRUGS

 

 

Effects

 

 

     Illegal drugs are defined in terms of their chemical

formulas. To circumvent these legal restrictions, underground

chemists modify the molecular structure of certain illegal

drugs to produce analogs known as designer drugs. These drugs

can be several hundred times stronger than the drugs they are

designed to imitate.

 

     Many of the so-called designer drugs are related to

amphetamines and have mild stimulant properties but are mostly

euphoriants. They can produce severe neurochemical damage to

the brain.

 

     The narcotic analogs can cause symptoms such as those seen

in Parkinson's disease: uncontrollable tremors, drooling,

impaired speech, paralysis, and irreversible brain damage.

Analogs of amphetamines and methamphetamines cause nausea,

blurred vision, chills or sweating, and faintness.

Psychological effects include anxiety, depression, and

paranoia. As little as one dose can cause brain damage. The

analogs of phencyclidine cause illusions, hallucinations, and

impaired perception.

 

 

 

ANABOLIC STEROIDS

 

 

     Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds

closely related to the male sex hormone testosterone. Developed

in the 1930s, steroids are seldom prescribed by physicians

today. Current legitimate medical uses are limited to certain

kinds of anemia, severe burns, and some types of breast cancer.

 

     Taken in combination with a program of muscle-building

exercise and diet, steroids may contribute to increases in body

weight and muscular strength. Because of these properties,

athletes in a variety of sports have used steroids since the

1950s, hoping to enhance performance. Today, they are being

joined by increasing numbers of young people seeking to

accelerate their physical development.

 

     Steroid users subject themselves to more than 70 side

effects ranging in severity from liver cancer to acne and

including psychological as well as physical reactions. The

liver and the cardiovascular and reproductive systems are most

seriously affected by steroid use. In males, use can cause

withered testicles, sterility, and impotence. In females,

irreversible masculine traits can develop along with breast

reduction and sterility. Psychological effects in both sexes

include very aggressive behavior known as "roid rage" and

depression. While some side effects appear quickly, others,

such as heart attacks and strokes, may not show up for years.

 

     Signs of steroid use include quick weight and muscle gains

(if steroids are being used in conjunction with a weight

training program); behavioral changes, particularly increased

aggressiveness and combativeness; jaundice; purple or red spots

on the body; swelling of feet or lower legs; trembling;

unexplained darkening of the skin; persistent unpleasant breath

odor, and severe acne.

 

     Steroids are produced in tablet or capsule form for oral

ingestion, or as a liquid for intramuscular injection.

 

 

Sources of Information

 

 

     The Department of Education does not endorse private or

commercial products or services, or products or services not

affiliated  with the Federal Government. The sources of

information listed on this and the following pages are intended

only as a partial listing of the resources that are available

to readers of this booklet. Readers are encouraged to research

and inform themselves of the products or services, relating to

drug and alcohol abuse, that are available to them. Readers are

encouraged to visit their public libraries to find out more

about the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse, or to call local,

State, or national hotlines for further information, advice, or

assistance.

 

 

TOLL-FREE INFORMATION

 

 

1-800-COCAINE--COCAINE HELPLINE

 

 

     A round-the-clock information and referral service.

Recovering cocaine addict counselors answer the phones, offer

guidance, and refer drug users and parents to local public and

private treatment centers and family learning centers.

 

 

1-800-NCA-CALL--NATIONAL COUNCIL ON ALCOHOLISM INFORMATION LINE

 

 

     The National Council on Alcoholism, Inc., is the national

nonprofit organization combating alcoholism, other drug

addictions, and related problems. Provides information about

NCA's State and local affiliates' activities in their areas.

Also provides referral services to families and individuals

seeking help with an alcohol or other drug problem.

 

 

1-800-662-HELP--NIDA HOTLINE

 

 

     NIDA Hotline, operated by the National Institute on Drug

Abuse, is a confidential information and referral line that

directs callers to cocaine abuse treatment centers in the local

community. Free materials on drug use also are distributed in

response to inquiries.

 

 

GENERAL READINGS

 

 

     Publications listed below are free unless otherwise noted.

 

Adolescent Drug Abuse: Analyses of Treatment Research, by

Elizabeth R. Rahdert and John Grabowski, 1988. This 139-page

book assesses the adolescent drug user and offers theories,

techniques, and findings about treatment and prevention. It

also discusses family-based approaches. National Clearinghouse

for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD

20852.

 

Adolescent Peer Pressure Theory, Correlates, and Program

Implications for Drug Abuse Prevention, 1988, U.S. Department

of Health and Human Services. This 115-page book focuses on

constructive ways of channeling peer pressure. This volume was

developed to help parents and professionals understand the

pressures associated with adolescence, the factors associated

with drug use, and other forms of problem behavior. Different

peer program approaches, ways in which peer programs can be

implemented, and research suggestions are included. National

Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345,

Rockville, MD 20852.

 

Building Drug-Free Schools, by Richard A. Hawley, Robert C.

Peterson, and Margaret C. Mason, 1986. This four-part drug

prevention kit for grades K-12 provides school staff, parents,

and community groups with suggestions for developing a workable

school drug policy, K-12 curriculum, and community support. The

kit consists of three written guides ($50) and a film ($275).

American Council for Drug Education, 204 Monroe Street, Suite

110, Rockville, MD 20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

 

The Challenge newsletter highlights successful school-based

programs, provides suggestions on effective prevention

techniques and the latest research on drugs and their effects.

Published quarterly by the U.S. Department of Education and

available from the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

 

Courtwatch Manual. A 111-page manual explaining the court

system, the criminal justice process, Courtwatch activities,

and what can be done before and after a criminal is sentenced.

Washington Legal Foundation, 1705 N Street, NW, Washington, DC

20036. Enclose $5 for postage and handling. Telephone (202)

857-0240.

 

Drug Prevention Curricula: A Guide to Selection and

Implementation, by the U.S. Department of Education, 1988.

Written with the help of a distinguished advisory panel, this

76-page handbook represents the best current thinking about

drug prevention education. It shows what to look for when

adopting or adapting ready-made curricula, and suggests

important lessons that ought to be part of any prevention

education sequence. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

 

Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs, by Robert DuPont, Jr., 1985.

This 330-page book describes the drug problem, the

drug-dependence syndrome, the gateway drugs, and some ways that

families can prevent and treat drug problems. American

Psychiatric Press, Inc., 1400 K Street, NW, Suite 1101,

Washington, DC 20005, paperback, $9.95. Telephone

1-800-368-5777 and in the DC area (202) 682-6269.

 

Gone Way Down: Teenage Drug-Use Is a Disease, by Miller Newton,

1981, revised 1987. This 72-page book describes the stages of

adolescent drug use. American Studies Press, paperback, $3.95.

Telephone (813) 961-7200.

 

Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and Professionals, by

Joyce Tobias, 1986, reprinted 1987. A 96-page handbook about

adolescent drug and alcohol use, the effects of drugs and the

drug culture, stages of chemical use, the formation of parent

groups, and available resources. PANDAA Press, 4111 Watkins

Trail, Annandale, VA 22003. Telephone (703) 750-9285,

paperback, $4.95 (volume discounts).

 

National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American

High School Students, 1975-1986, by Jerald G. Bachman, Lloyd D.

Johnston, and Patrick M. O'Malley, 1987. This 265-page book

reports on trends in drug use and attitudes of high school

seniors, based on an annual survey conducted since 1975.

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O.

Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

 

Parents, Peers and Pot II: Parents in Action, by Marsha Manatt,

1983, reprinted 1988. This 160-page book describes the

formation of parent groups in rural, suburban, and urban

communities. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

 

Peer Pressure Reversal, by Sharon Scott, 1985, reprinted 1988.

A 183-page guidebook for parents, teachers, and concerned

citizens to enable them to teach peer pressure reversal skills

to children. Human Resource Development Press, 22 Amherst Road,

Amherst, MA 01002. Telephone (413) 253-3488, paperback, $9.95.

 

Pot Safari, by Peggy Mann, 1982, reprinted 1987. A 134-page

book for parents and teenagers. Distinguished research

scientists are interviewed on the subject of marijuana.

Woodmere Press, Cathedral Finance Station, P.O. Box 20190, New

York, NY 10125. Telephone (212) 678-7839. Paperback, $6.95 plus

shipping (volume discounts).

 

Strategies for Controlling Adolescent Drug Use, by Michael J.

Polich et al., 1984. This 196-page book reviews the scientific

literature on the nature of drug use and the effectiveness of

drug law enforcement, treatment, and prevention programs. The

Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa

Monica, CA 90406-2138, R-3076-CHF. Telephone

(213) 393-0411, paperback $15.00.

 

Team Up for Drug Prevention With America's Young Athletes. A

free booklet for coaches that includes information about

alcohol and other drugs, reasons why athletes use drugs,

suggested activities for coaches, a prevention program, a

survey for athletes and coaches, and sample letters to parents.

Drug Enforcement Administration, Demand Reduction Section, 1405

I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20537. Telephone (202) 786-4096.

 

The Fact Is...You Can Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems

Among Elementary School Children, 1988. This 17-page booklet

includes audiovisuals, program descriptions, and professional

and organizational resources to assist educators and parents of

young children. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852.

 

 

VIDEOTAPES

 

 

     The following drug prevention videos were developed by the

U.S. Department of Education. They are available for loan

through the Department's Regional Centers listed on pages 78

and 79 and the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20852; (301)

468-2600.

 

 

Elementary School

 

 

The Drug Avengers. Ten 5-minute animated adventures that urge

caution about ingesting unfamiliar substances; encourage

students to trust their instincts when they think something is

wrong; and show that drugs make things worse, not better.

 

Fast Forward Future. A magical device allows youngsters to peer

into the future and see on a TV screen what will happen if they

use drugs and what will happen if they remain drug free.

 

Straight Up. A fantasy adventure that features information on

the effects of drugs, developing refusal skills, building

self-esteem, and resisting peer pressure.

 

 

Junior High

 

 

Straight at Ya. Tips on peer pressure, saying no, and building

self-esteem.

 

Lookin' Good. A two-part series based on actual incidents that

convey the dangers of drug use and promote the use of peer

support groups.

 

Straight Talk. Teens discuss why they won't use drugs and ways

to avoid drugs.

 

 

High School

 

 

Hard Facts About Alcohol, Marijuana, and Crack. Offers factual

information about the dangers of drug use in a series of

dramatic vignettes.

 

Speak Up, Speak Out: Learning to Say No to Drugs. Gives

students specific techniques they can use to resist peer

pressure and say no to drug use.

 

Dare to Be Different. Uses the friendship of two athletes in

their last year of high school to illustrate the importance of

goals and values in resisting pressures to use drugs.

 

Downfall: Sports and Drugs. Shows how drugs affect athletic

performance and examines the consequences of drug use,

including steroid use, on every aspect of an athlete's

life--career, family, friends, sense of accomplishment, and

self-esteem.

 

Private Victories. Illustrates the effects of drug and alcohol

use on students and the value of positive peer influences in

resisting peer pressure to use drugs.

 

 

SOURCES OF FREE CATALOGS OF PUBLICATIONS

 

 

Hazelden Educational Materials. A source for pamphlets and

books on drug use and alcoholism and curriculum materials for

drug prevention. Telephone 1-800-328-9000. In Minnesota, call

(612) 257-4010 or 1-800-257-0070.

 

National Council on Alcoholism. A source for pamphlets,

booklets, and fact sheets on alcoholism and drug use. Telephone

(212) 206-6770.

 

Johnson Institute. A source for audiocassettes, films,

videocassettes, pamphlets, and books on alcoholism and drug

use. Offers books and pamphlets on prevention and intervention

for children, teens, parents, and teachers. Telephone toll-free

1-800-231-5165. In Minnesota, 1-800-247-0484 and in

Minneapolis/St. Paul area, 944-0511.

 

National Association for Children of Alcoholics. A source for

books, pamphlets, and handbooks for children of alcoholics.

Conducts regional workshops and provides a directory of local

members and meetings. Telephone (714) 499-3889.

 

 

SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY RESOURCES

 

 

     ACTION Drug Prevention Program. ACTION, the Federal

volunteer agency, works at the local, State, and national

levels to encourage and help fund the growth of youth, parents,

and senior citizen groups and networks committed to helping

youth remain drug free. 806 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite

M-606, Washington, DC 20525. Telephone (202) 634-9757.

 

     American Council for Drug Education (ACDE). ACDE organizes

conferences; develops media campaigns; reviews scientific

findings; publishes books, a quarterly newsletter, and

education kits for physicians, schools, and libraries; and

produces films. 204 Monroe Street, Suite 110, Rockville, MD

20852. Telephone (301) 294-0600.

 

     Committees of Correspondence. This organization provides a

newsletter and bulletins on issues, ideas, and contacts.

Publishes a resource list and pamphlets. Membership is $15.00.

57 Conant Street, Room 113, Danvers, MA 09123. Telephone (508)

774-2641.

 

     Drug-Free Schools and Communities--Regional Centers

Program, U.S. Department of Education. This program is designed

to help local school districts, State education agencies, and

institutions of higher education to develop alcohol and drug

education and prevention programs. Five regional centers

provide training and technical assistance. For further

information on center services, contact the center in your

region:

 

Northeast Regional Center for    Connecticut, Delaware, Maine,

  Drug-Free Schools and          Maryland, Massachusetts,

  Communities                    New Hampshire, New Jersey,

12 Overton Ave.                  New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania

Sayville, NY 11782-0403          Rhode Island, Vermont

(516) 589-7022

 

Southeast Regional Center for    Alabama,

  Drug-Free Schools and          District of Columbia, Florida,

  Communities                    Georgia, Kentucky,

Spencerian Office Plaza          North Carolina, Puerto Rico,

University of Louisville         South Carolina, Tennessee,

Louisville, KY 40292             Virginia, Virgin Islands,

(502) 588-0052                   West Virginia

FAX: (502) 588-1782

 

Midwest Regional Center for      Indiana, Illinois,

  Drug-Free Schools and          Iowa, Michigan,

  Communities                    Minnesota,

1900 Spring Road                 Missouri, Nebraska,

Oak Brook, IL 60521              North Dakota,

(708) 571-4710                   South Dakota,

FAX: (708) 571-4718              Wisconsin

 

Southwest Regional Center        Arizona, Arkansas,

  for Drug-Free Schools and      Colorado, Kansas,

  Communities                    Louisiana, Mississippi,

555 Constitution Ave.            New Mexico, Oklahoma,

Norman, OK 73037-0005            Texas, Utah

(405) 325-1454

(800) 234-7972 (outside Oklahoma)

 

Western Regional Center          Alaska, California, Hawaii,

  for Drug-Free Schools and      Idaho, Montana, Nevada,

  Communities                    Oregon, Washington, Wyoming,

101 S.W. Main St., Suite 500     American Samoa, Guam,

Portland, OR 97204               Northern Mariana Islands,

(503) 275-9480                   and Republic of Palau

(800) 547-6339 (outside Oregon)

 

     For general program information, contact the U.S.

Department of Education, Drug-Free Schools Staff, 400 Maryland

Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-6151. Telephone (202)

732-4599.

 

     Drug-Free Schools and Communities--State and Local

Programs, U.S. Department of Education. This program provides

each State educational agency and Governor's office with funds

for alcohol and drug education and prevention programs in local

schools and communities. For information on contact persons in

your State, contact the U.S. Department of Education, Drug-Free

Schools Staff, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC

20202-6151. Telephone (202) 732-4599.

 

      Families in Action. This organization maintains a drug

information center with more than 200,000 documents. Publishes

Drug Abuse Update, a quarterly journal containing abstracts of

articles published in medical and academic journals and

newspapers. $25 for four issues. 2296 Henderson Mill Road,

Suite 204, Atlanta, GA 30345. Telephone (404) 934-6364.

 

     "Just Say No" Clubs. These nationwide clubs provide

support and positive peer reinforcement to youngsters through

workshops, seminars, newsletters, walk-a-thons, and a variety

of other activities. Clubs are organized by schools,

communities, and parent groups. Just Say No Foundation, 1777 N.

California Boulevard, Suite 200, Walnut Creek, CA 94596.

Telephone 1-800-258-2766 or (415) 939-6666.

 

     Narcotics Education, Inc. This organization publishes

pamphlets, books, teaching aids, posters, audiovisual aids, and

prevention magazines designed for classroom use: WINNER for

Preteens and LISTEN for teens. 6830 Laurel Street, NW,

Washington, DC 20012. Telephone 1-800-548-8700, or in the

Washington, DC area, call (202) 722-6740.

 

     Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education, Inc.

(PRIDE). This national resource and information center offers

consultant services to parent groups, school personnel, and

youth groups, and provides a drug-use survey service. It

conducts an annual conference; publishes a newsletter, a youth

group handbook, and other publications; and sells and rents

books, films, videos, and slide programs. Membership is $20.

The Hurt Building, 50 Hurt Plaza, Suite 210, Atlanta, GA 30303.

Telephone (404) 577-4500, 1-800-241-9746.

 

     TARGET. Conducted by the National Federation of State High

School Associations, an organization of interscholastic

activities associations, TARGET offers workshops, training

seminars, and an information bank on chemical use and

prevention. It has a computerized referral service to substance

abuse literature and prevention programs. National Federation

of State High School Associations, 11724 Plaza Circle, P.O. Box

20626, Kansas City, MO 64195. Telephone (816) 464-5400.

 

     Toughlove. This national self-help group for parents,

children, and communities emphasizes cooperation, personal

initiative, avoidance of blame, and action. It publishes a

newsletter, brochures, and books and holds workshops. P.O. Box

1069, Doylestown, PA 18901. Telephone 1-800-333-1069 or (215)

348-7090.

 

     U.S. Clearinghouse. (A publication list is available on

request, along with placement on a mailing list for new

publications. Single copies are free.)

 

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI)

P.O. Box 2345

Rockville, MD 20852

(301) 468-2600

1-800-SAY-NOTO

 

     NCADI combines the clearinghouse activities previously

administered by the National Institute on Alcoholism and

Alcohol Abuse and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The

Department of Education contributes to the support of the

clearinghouse, and provides anti-drug materials for free

distribution.

 

 

READINGS ON LEGAL ISSUES

 

 

Alexander, Kern, American Public School Law, 3d ed. St. Paul,

MN: West Publishing Company, 1992.

 

Rapp. J.A., Education Law, New York, NY: Matthew Bender and

Company, Inc., 1991. A comprehensive, frequently updated,

four-volume, looseleaf treatise on all issues of education law.

 

The Journal of Law and Education includes articles on education

issues and a section on recent developments in the law. It is

published quarterly by Jefferson Law Book Company, 2035 Redding

Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45202-1416.

 

Reutter, E. Edmund, The Law of Public Education, 3d ed.

Mineola, NY: Foundation Press, 1985.

 

School Law Bulletin is a quarterly magazine published by the

Institute of Government, University of North Carolina at Chapel

Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3330.

 

School Law News is a newsletter that describes recent

developments in the field. Capitol Publications, Inc., P.O. Box

1453, Alexandria, VA 22313-2053, Telephone (800) 327-7203.

 

The Schools and the Courts contains briefs of selected court

cases involving elementary and secondary schools. It is

published quarterly by College Administration Publications,

830-D Fairview Rd., P.O. Box 15898, Asheville, NC 28813-0898.

 

West's Education Law Reporter reprints the full text of Federal

and State education law cases. Also included are education

articles and comments selected from legal periodicals. West

Publishing Company, 610 Opperman Drive, P.O. Box 64526, St.

Paul, MN 55164-0526.

 

 

OTHER SOURCES OF MATERIALS ON LEGAL ISSUES

 

 

     Council of School Attorneys, National School Boards

Association (NSBA), provides a national forum on the practical

legal problems faced by local public school districts and the

attorneys who serve them. NSBA conducts programs and seminars

and publishes monographs on a wide range of legal issues

affecting public school districts. 1680 Duke Street,

Alexandria, VA 22314, Telephone (703) 838-NSBA.

 

     National Organization on Legal Problems of Education

(NOLPE) is a nonprofit, nonadvocacy organization that

disseminates information about current issues in school law.

NOLPE publishes newsletters, serials, books, and monographs on

a variety of school law topics; hosts seminars; and serves as a

clearinghouse for information on education law. 3601

SW 29th Street, Suite 223, Topeka, KS 66614. Telephone (913)

273-3550.

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

Children and Drugs

 

 

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to

Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol.

15(4), 1985.

 

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.

Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the

Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of

Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1987 (and unpublished

information).

 

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and

Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, 1986.

 

 

Youth and Alcohol

 

 

Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems. NIAAA, Alcohol and

Health Monograph 1, 1982.

 

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman.

National Trends in Drug Use and Related Factors Among American

High School Students and Young Adults. NIDA, Department of

Health and Human Services, (ADM-87-1535), U.S. Government

Printing Office, 1987

 

Alcohol Topics: Fact Sheet, Alcohol and Youth. January 1987,

Rockville, MD. "Blood Alcohol Concentrations Among Young

Drivers, 1983." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

33:699-701, 1984. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information.

 

Alcohol and Health VI. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and

Alcoholism, Sixth Special Report to the U.S Congress on Alcohol

and Health, (ADM 87-1519) Rockville, MD.

 

Health, United States, 1980. National Center for Health

Statistics, (PHS 81-1232), December 1980.

 

"A Study of Children's Attitudes and Perceptions about Drugs

and Alcohol." Weekly Reader Publications. Middletown, CT. April

25, 1983.

 

National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information: "Fact

Sheet: Selected Statistics on Alcohol and alcoholism," June

1987. Rockville, MD.

 

DuPont, R.L. "Substance Abuse." Journal of the American Medical

Association, 254:16, October 25, 1985.

 

Kandel, D.B. "Epidemiological and Psychosocial Perspectives on

Adolescent Drug Use." Journal of the American Academy of Child

Psychology, 21(4):328-347, 1982.

 

Braucht, G.N. "Psychosocial Research on Teenage Drinking: Past

and Future," in Scarpitti, F.R. & S.K. Datesman, eds. Drugs and

the Youth Culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.,

1980.

 

Jenson, R. "Adolescent Problem Drinking: Psychosocial Aspects &

Developmental Outcomes in Proceedings." Collaborating Center

Designation Meeting & Alcohol Research Seminar, L.H. Towle, ed.

1985. (ADM 85-1730), Rockville, MD.

 

 

Extent of Alcohol and Other Drug Use

 

 

Johnston, Lloyd D., Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.

Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the

Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of

Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1991 (and unpublished

information).

 

Johnston, Lloyd D., Patrick M. O'Malley, and Jerald G. Bachman.

Drug Use Among American High School Students, College Students,

and Other Young Adults: National Trends Through 1990.

Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1990 (and

unpublished information).

 

Miller, Judith D., Ira H. Cisin, and Herbert I. Abelson.

National Survey on Drug Abuse: Main Findings, 1982. Rockville,

MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM 83-1263).

 

Delinquency in the United States, 1982. Pittsburgh, PA:

National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1985.

 

Drug Problems in Japan. National Police Agency of Japan, 1985.

 

"Youth and Alcohol: A National Survey." U.S. Department of

Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General,

1991.

 

O'Malley, Patrick M., Jerald G. Bachman, and Lloyd D. Johnston.

"Student Drug Use in America: Differences Among High Schools."

Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Institute for Social

Research, unpublished preliminary draft.

 

Japan Statistics Yearbook, 1985. Tokyo: Statistics Bureau,

Management and Coordination Agency, 1985.

 

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine

Abuse: A View from the National Hotline, 800-COCAINE ;" in

Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

 

 

How Drug Use Develops

 

 

Bolton, Iris M. "Educated Suicide Prevention." School Safety.

Spring 1986.

 

DuPont, Robert L. Getting Tough on Gateway Drugs. Washington,

DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1984.

 

Gold, Mark S., Linda Semlitz, Charles A. Dackis, and Irl

Extein. "The Adolescent Cocaine Epidemic." Seminars in

Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 1(4). New York, NY: Thieme, Inc.,

December 1985.

 

Holzman, David. "Crack Shatters the Cocaine Myth," and "Hot

Line Taking 1,200 Calls A Day." Insight. June 23, 1986.

 

Jaffe, Jerome H. "Testimony before Subcommittee on Children,

Family, Drugs, and Alcoholism," February 20, 1986. Washington,

DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

 

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

 

Mills, Carol J. and Harvey L. Noyes. "Patterns and Correlates

of Initial and Subsequent Drug Use Among Adolescents." Journal

of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(2), 1984.

 

Morganthau, Tom, Mark Miller, Janet Huck, and Jeanne DeQuinne.

"Kids and Cocaine." Newsweek, March 17, 1986.

 

Cocaine Addiction: It Costs Too Much. Rockville, MD: National

Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

 

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press,

1986.

 

Weekly Reader Publications. The Weekly Reader National Survey:

Drugs and Drinking. Middletown, CT: Field Publications, 1987.

 

 

Effects of Drug Use

 

 

Deadwyler, Sam A. "Correlating Behavior with Neural Activity:

An Approach to Study the Action of Drugs in the Behaving

Animal. "Neuroscience Methods in Drug Abuse Research.

Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1985.

 

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

 

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press,

1986.

 

 

Drug Use and Learning

 

 

Friedman, Alfred. "Does Drug and Alcohol Use Lead to Failure to

Graduate from High School?" Journal of Drug Education, Vol.

15(4), 1985.

 

Johnston, Lloyd D. Jerald G. Bachman, and Patrick M. O'Malley.

Monitoring the Future: Questionnaire Responses from the

Nation's High School Seniors. Ann Arbor, MI: University of

Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 1987 (and unpublished

information).

 

Niven, Robert G. "Marijuana in the School: Clinical Observation

and Needs." Marijuana and Youth. Rockville, MD: National

Institute on Drug Abuse, 1982.

 

Washton, Arnold M. and Mark S. Gold. "Recent Trends in Cocaine

Abuse: A View from the National Hotline, '800-COCAINE'," in

Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse, 1987.

 

 

What Parents Can Do

 

 

American Association of School Administrators and the Quest

National Center. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches to

Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use. Arlington VA:

American Association of School Administrators, 1985.

 

Fraser, M. W., and J. D. Hawkins. Parent Training for

Delinquency Prevention: A Review. Seattle, WA: Center for Law

and Justice, University of Washington, 1982.

 

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD:

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

 

Mann, Peggy. Marijuana Alert. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1985.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drugs and the Family.

Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1981, (ADM

83-1151).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse, Parents: What You Can De

About Drug Abuse--Get Involved. Rockville, MD: National

Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983 (ADM 84-1267).

 

Tobias, Joyce M. Kids and Drugs. Annandale, VA: Panda Press,

1986.

 

 

What Schools Can Do

 

 

Adams, Tom, with Bernard R. McColgan, Steven E. Gardner, and

Maureen E. Sullivan. Drug Abuse Prevention and the Schools.

Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, June 1984

(unpublished paper).

 

Assisting Athletes with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

Rockland, ME: State of Maine, March 1986.

 

Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc. "Evaluation of Drug

Literature." Amherst, MA: Hampshire Informed Parents, Inc.

 

Hawley, R. A A School Answers Back: Responding to Student Drug

Use. Rockville, MD: American Council for Drug Education, 1984.

 

Kennedy, Dorothy. "A Teacher Help Me Stop Drug Abuse." The

Executive Educator. October 1980, p. 23.

 

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Prevention

Plus: Involving Schools, Parents, and the Community in Alcohol

and Drug Education. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing

Office, 1983 (ADM 83-1256).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Handbook for Prevention

Evaluation. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse,

1981.

 

National School Boards Association. Resolutions of the NSBA.

Alexandria, VA: National School Boards Association, April 1986.

 

Pyramid Project. School Drug Policy. Berkeley, CA: Pacific

Institute for Research and Evaluation, July 1986.

 

The Rand Corporation. Teens in Action: Creating a Drug-Free

Future for America's Youth. Rockville, MD: National Institute

on Drug Abuse, 1985 (ADM 85-1376).

 

Rubel, Robert J. A Comprehensive Approach to Drug Prevention.

Austin, TX: National Alliance for Safe Schools, 1984.

 

South Dakota High School Activities Association. Chemical

Health-School Athletics and Fine Arts Activities. Pierre, SD:

South Dakota High School Athletics Association, 1968.

 

Strong, Gerald. "It's Time to Get Tough on Alcohol and Drug

Abuse in Schools," The American School Board Journal. February

1983.

 

U.S. Department of Justice. For Coaches Only: How to Start a

Drug Prevention Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of

Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, 1984.

 

U.S. Department of Justice. Team Up for Prevention. Washington,

DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement

Administration, 1984.

 

 

What Communities Can Do

 

 

Blizard, R.A. and R.W. Teague. "Alternatives to Drug Use: An

Alternative Approach to Drug Education." The International

Journal of the Addictions, 1981, pp. 371-375.

 

Final Evaluation Report, 1984-85 Project DARE (Drug Abuse

Resistance Educational). Los Angeles, CA: Evaluation and

Training Institute, August 1985.

 

Manatt, Marsha. Parents, Peers, and Pot II. Rockville, MD:

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Preventing Adolescent Drug

Abuse: Intervention Strategies. Rockville, MD: National

Institute on Drug Abuse, 1983.

 

 

Teaching About Drug Prevention

 

 

Bausen, William B. and C. Kevin Molotte. Well and Good.

Hollywood, CA: Health Promotion Associates, 1984.

 

Ellickson, Phyllis L. and Gall Zellman. Adapting the Social

Influence Model to Drug Prevention: The Project Alert

Curriculum. Paper presented at annual meeting of the American

Public Health Association, Washington, DC: November 1985.

 

Project SMART. Los Angeles, CA: Health Behavior Research

Institute. University of Southern California, 1982.

 

Adolescent Peer Pressure. Rockville, MD: National Institute on

Drug Abuse, 1981 (ADM 84-1152).

 

Teaching Tools for Primary Prevention. Rockville, MD: National

Institute on Drug Abuse, December 1982 (unpublished paper).

 

New Hampshire State Department of Education. K-12 Guidelines

for School Preventive Drug Education. Concord, NH: State of New

Hampshire, 1979.

 

 

How the Law Can Help

 

 

   1 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 418 U.S. 615,682 (1986).

   2 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. 325, 339 (1985).

   3 2 J. Rapp, Education Law, 5 9.06[2] at 9-132 (1991).

   4 See 21 U.S.C. 5 860.

   5 See 21 U.S.C. 5 859.

   6 See e.g., Zamora v. Pomeroy, 639 F.2d 662 (10th Cir. 1981)

     (locker search conducted after trained police dog

     indicated presence of marijuana inside).

   7 See e.g., Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School

     District, 690 F.2d 470, 476-77 (5th Cir. 1982) (en banc)

     (citing cases and so holding), cert. denied, 463 U.S. 1207

     (1983).

   8 New Jersey v. T.L.O., 469 U.S. at 343.

   9 Id. at 340.

  10 Id. at 345-48.

  11 Bahr v. Jenkins, 539 F. Supp. 483,488 (E.D. Ky. 1982).

  12 Martens v. District No. 220, 620 F. Supp. 29 (N.D. Ill.

     1985).

  13 See Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690

     F.2d at 477 (1982); Jones v. Latexo Independent School,

     499 F. Supp. 223 (E.D. Tex. 1980).

  14 See Doe v. Renfrow, 475 F. Supp. 1012 (N.D. Ind. 1979),

     aff'd in relevant part, 631 F.2d 91 (7th Cir.), cert.

     denied, 451 U.S. 1022 (1981).

  15 Horton v. Goose Creek Independent School District, 690

     F.2d at 477.

  16 Compare Odenheim v. Carlstadt-East Rutherford Regional

     School District, 211 N.J. Super. 54, 10 A.2d 709 (1985)

     and Anable v. Ford, 653 F. Supp. 22 (W.D. Ark.), modified,

     663 F. Supp. 149 (W.D. Ark. 1985) (urinalysis not

     permitted to screen public school students for drugs) with

     Schaill v. Tijpecanoe, 679 F. Supp. 833 (N.D. Ind. 1988)

     (upheld drug testing of interscholastic athletes in the

     public school system), aft'd, 864 F.2d 1309 (7th Cir.

     1988).

  17 Bethel School District v. Fraser, 478 U.S. at 686.

  18 Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565 (1975).

  19 One of the leading cases is Dixon v. Alabama State Board

     of Education, 294 F.2d 150 (5th Cir.), cert. denied. 368

     U.S. 930 (1961).

  20 See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C.

     55 1400-20, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of

     1973, 29 U.S.C. 5 794.

  21 See generally 20 U.S.C. 5 1232g and 34 C.F.R. Part 99.

  22 The term education records is defined as records that are

     directly related to a student and maintained by or for the

     education agency or institution. The term does not include

     certain records maintained by a separate law enforcement

     unit of an education agency.

  23 FERPA permits a school to disclose information from

     education records to its own officials (including

     teachers) who have a legitimate educational interest in

     the information. A school may determine in its FERPA

     policy that one such interest is the need to decide on the

     appropriateness of discipline.

  24 An eligible student is a student who is 18 or older or

     attending an institution of postsecondary education.

  25 See Board of Education v. McCluskey, 458 U.S. 966, 970-71

     (1982) (per curiam); see also Tarter v. Raybuck, 742 F.2d

     977, 983 (6th Cir. 1984), cert. denied, 470 U.S. 1051

     (1985).

  26 See Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982); Wood v.

     Strickland, 420 U.S. 308 (1975). Under these cases,

     officials will be immune from personal liability so long

     as their conduct does not violate clearly established

     constitutional or Federal statutory rights of which a

     reasonable person should have known.

  27 Memphis Community School District v. Stachura, 477 U.S.

     299 (1986).

  28 Carey v. Piphus, 435 U.S. 247 (1978).

 

 

Specific Drugs and Their Effects

 

 

Drug Enforcement Administration. Drugs of Abuse. Washington,

DC, 1985.

 

Mann, Peggy. Pot Safari: A Visit to the Top Marijuana Research

in the U.S. New York, NY: Woodmere Press, 1985.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cocaine Use in America:

Epidemiologic and Clinical Perspectives. National Institute on

Drug Abuse, 1985, (ADM 85-1414).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Abuse and Drug Abuse

Research. 1984, (ADM 85-1372).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hallucinogens and PCP. 1983,

(ADM 83-1306).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Inhalants. 1983 (ADM

83-1307).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Marijuana. 1983 (ADM

83-1307).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA Capsules, various

issues.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opiates. 1984 (ADM 84-1308).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Phencyclidine: An Update.

(ADM 86-1443).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Sedative-Hynotics. 1984 (ADM

84-1309).

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Stimulants and Cocaine. 1984

(ADM 84-1304).

 

Newsweek. March 17, 1986, page 58.

 

Tobias, Joyce. Kids and Drugs: A Handbook for Parents and

Professionals. Annandale, VA: PANDAA Press, May 1986.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

     The following employees of the U.S. Department of

Education assisted in the preparation of this volume and

previous editions:

 

Beverley Blondell                  Adriana de Kanter

Henry Bretzfield                   Amy Katz

Ron Bucknam                        Kim Light

Judith Cherrington                 John Mason

Mari Colvin                        Ross McNutt

Maura Daly                         Val Plisko

Elizabeth Farquhar                 Sandra Richardson

Jaime Fernandez                    Loretta Riggans

Margaret Guenther                  Deborah Rudy

Charlotte Gillespie                Daniel Schecter

Alan Ginsburg                      Amy L. Schwartz

Wilma Green                        Barbara Vespucci

Dick Hays                          John Walters

Gregory Henschel                   Sherry Weissman

Daphne Kaplan                      Valerie Wood

 

     Assistance was also provided by staff from the National

Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, the National

Institute on Drug Abuse, and by consultants Elizabeth S.

McConnell and Joel M. Moskowitz.

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