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PREPARING YOUR CHILD FOR COLLEGE
 

A Resource Book for Parents

 

A NOTE TO PARENTS

 

     It's never too early to think about college -- about the

benefits of a college education and about ways to put college

within reach academically and financially. Throughout their

school years, students make academic and other decisions that

affect whether they will be eligible to enter college.

You -- working with others -- can help your child make these

decisions wisely.

 

     This resource book is designed to help you with that

process. It will help you work with your child and with your

child's teachers and guidance counselors, to ensure that he or

she has the option of going to college. It will help your child

to prepare academically for the rigors of college, and it will

help you to plan financially for the costs of a college

education. A good academic record on your child's part and

sound financial planning on your part will help ensure a menu

of opportunities when the time comes to decide about college.

Although this book was written primarily as a long-term

planning guide for parents, guidance counselors and teachers

will also find it useful and informative.

 

 

     This book will help you to

 

 

  -- Set high expectations for your child's future;

 

  -- Know what college options are available;

 

  -- Plan your finances with college in mind; and

 

  -- Know what financial assistance your child may be eligible

     to receive.

 

     To ensure that today's students will be able to live,

work, and compete in the 21st century, the U.S. Department of

Education and the Nation's governors set a direction for the

Nation by establishing six national education goals. In brief,

the goals state that by the year 2000

 

   * All children in America will start school ready to learn;

 

   * The high school graduation rate will improve to at least

     90 percent;

 

   * All children will be competent in at least English,

     mathematics, science, history, and geography;

 

   * American students will be first in the world in science

     and mathematics;

 

   * Adult Americans will be literate and have the skills

     necessary to compete in a world economy;

 

   * And every school in America will be free of drugs and

     violence.

 

     As we turn from a "Nation at Risk" to a "Nation on the

Move" we must assure that our children and youth are prepared

to meet the challenge of the world economy, the obligation of

civic responsibility, and the responsibility of attaining the

national education goals.

 

     Attaining the national education goals depends greatly on

the efforts of the entire community, but especially you, the

parents of our children. In helping your child succeed in high

school and aim for college, you're also helping our Nation

produce informed citizens and a competitive work force for the

next decade and beyond.

 

Richard W. Riley

U.S. Secretary of Education

 

 

PREPARING YOUR CHILD FOR COLLEGE

 

 

  I. General Questions About College

 

     Why attend college?

     What types of colleges exist?

     What kinds of jobs are available to college graduates?

 

 II. Preparing for College

 

     What can my child do to prepare academically for college?

     What can my child do outside the classroom to prepare for

     college?

 

III. Choosing a College

 

     How can my child go about choosing a college?

 

IV. Financing a College Education

 

     How much does a college education cost?

     How can I afford to send my child to college?

     What are the most common sources of financial aid?

     Is my child eligible for financial aid? If so, how much ?

     Are there other ways to keep the cost of college down?

 

V. Long-Range Planning

 

     How do I set up a long-range plan?

 

VI. Important Terms

 

     What terms do I need to understand?

 

VII. Other Sources of Information

 

     Where can I get more information on the topics discussed

     in this handbook?

 

Exercises and Checklists for You and Your Child

 

 

     Help Your Child Think About a Career

     Course Planner for Parent and Student

     College Inquiries

     College Preparation Checklist for Students

     Financial Preparation Checklist for Parents

 

Charts

 

 

     Chart 1: Examples of Jobs Requiring College Preparation

     Chart 2: High School Courses Recommended for a Four-Year

       College

     Chart 3: Questions To Ask Guidance Counselors

     Chart 4: Distribution of College Students by the Amount of

       Tuition and Fees Charged

     Chart 5: Typical College

     Chart 6: Average Tuition and Fees By Type of College,

       School Year 1991-1992

     Chart 7: Amount You Would Need To Save To Have $10,000

       Available When Your Child Begins College

     Chart 8: Examples of Savings Instruments and Investments

     Chart 9: How Much Need-Based Financial Aid Can My Child

       Get?

     Chart 10: Military Postsecondary Education Opportunities

 

 

Why attend college?

 

 

     A college degree can provide your child with many

opportunities in life. A college education can mean:

 

 

Greater Knowledge

 

 

     A college education will increase your child's ability to

understand developments in science and in society, to think

abstractly and critically, to express thoughts clearly in

speech and in writing, and to make wise decisions. These skills

are useful both on and off the job.

 

 

Greater Potential

 

 

     A college education can help increase your child's

understanding of the community, the Nation, and the world--as

he or she explores interests, discovers new areas of knowledge,

considers lifelong goals, and becomes a responsible citizen.

 

 

More Job Opportunities

 

 

     The world is changing rapidly. Many jobs rely on new

technology and already require more brain power than muscle

power. In your child's working life, more and more jobs will

require education beyond high school. With a college education,

your child will have more jobs from which to choose.

 

 

More Money

 

 

     A person who attends college generally earns more than a

person who does not.

 

     For example, in 1989, a person with a college degree from

a four-year college earned approximately $10,000 more in that

year than a person who did not go to college. With a college

education, your child can earn higher pay.

 

     Some of these benefits of college may not be obvious to

your child. Even though he or she has to make the final

decision to attend college, you can help in the decision-making

process by learning about all aspects of college yourself and

sharing what you learn with your child.

 

 

What types of colleges* exist?

 

 

   * Throughout this document, the term "college" is used to

     refer to all collegiate institutions--both colleges and

     universities.

 

     More than half of all recent high school graduates in the

United States have had some type of postsecondary education. In

many other countries, a smaller percentage of students go on

for more schooling after high school. One reason so many U.S.

students seek postsecondary education is that American students

have a wide choice of colleges to consider. For this reason,

your child is likely to find a college well-suited to his or

her needs.

 

     There are two basic types of colleges that offer academic

programs:

 

 

Two-Year Colleges

 

 

     These schools offer two-year programs leading to a

certificate, an associate of arts (A.A.) degree, an associate

of science (A.S.) degree, or an associate of applied science

(A.A.S.) degree.

 

 

Four-Year Colleges and Universities

 

 

     These schools usually offer a bachelor of arts (B.A.) or

bachelor of science (B.S.) degree. Some also offer graduate and

professional degrees.

 

 

Two-Year Colleges

 

 

     For students who want a practical education aimed at a

specific career in such areas as bookkeeping, dental hygiene,

etc., a two-year program is probably the answer. In many cases,

two-year degrees can be transferred to four-year schools and

credited toward a B.A. or B.S. degree. Two-year programs vary

from school to school, but, in general, are offered by:

 

     Junior Colleges: These are generally private institutions,

     some of which are residential and attended by students who

     may come from other parts of the country; and

 

     Community Colleges: These are public institutions, mostly

     serving people from nearby communities. Public

     institutions are supported by state and local revenues.

 

     Many junior and community colleges offer

technical/vocational training, as well as academic courses.

Many offer such programs in cooperation with local businesses,

industry, public service agencies, or other organizations.

 

     Two-year colleges often operate under an "open admissions"

policy, which can vary from school to school. At some

institutions, "open admissions" means that anyone who has a

high school diploma or GED certificate can enroll. At other

schools, anyone over 18 years of age can enroll or, in some

cases, anyone deemed able to benefit from the programs at the

schools can enroll.

 

 

     Application requirements at some two-year colleges may

include a high school transcript--a list of all the courses

your child took and grades earned in four years of high

school--and college entrance examination scores as well. Some

schools have programs that allow "open admissions," while other

programs in the same school--particularly in scientific or

technical subjects--may have further admission requirements.

Since requirements vary widely, it is important to check into

schools and programs individually.

 

 

Four-Year Colleges and Universities

 

 

     Students who wish to pursue a general academic program

usually choose a four-year college or university. Such a

program lays the foundation for more advanced studies and

professional work. Four-year colleges and universities offer

bachelor's degrees (the B.A. and B.S.)in most areas in the arts

and sciences, such as English literature, foreign languages,

history, economics, political science, biology, zoology,

chemistry, and in many other fields.

 

     Here are the main differences between four-year colleges

and universities:

 

     Four-Year Colleges: These are postsecondary schools that

     provide four-year educational programs in the arts and

     sciences. These colleges confer bachelorís degrees.

 

     Universities: These are postsecondary schools that include

     a college of arts and/or sciences, one or more programs of

     graduate studies, and one or more professional schools.

     Universities confer bachelor's degrees and graduate and

     professional degrees.

 

     When a student earns a bachelor's degree it means that he

or she has passed examinations in a broad range of courses and

has studied one or two subject areas in greater depth. (These

one or two subject areas are called a student's "major" area(s)

of study or area(s) of "concentration.") A bachelor's degree is

usually required before a student can begin studying for a

graduate degree. A graduate degree is usually earned through

two or more years of advanced studies beyond four years of

college. This might be a master's or a doctoral degree in a

particular field or a specialized degree required in certain

professions such as law, social work, architecture, or

medicine.

 

 

What kinds of jobs are available to college graduates?

 

 

     Certificates and degrees earned by graduates of two- and

four-year colleges or universities usually lead to different

kinds of professional opportunities. Many professions require

graduate degrees beyond the traditional four-year degree, such

as a medical degree or a law degree. For example:

 

     A course of study in bookkeeping at a community college

     generally prepares a student for a Job as a bookkeeper.

 

     A four-year degree in economics may prepare a student for

     any one of several Jobs in a bank or a business.

 

     A four-year degree in English may serve as background for

     getting teacher certification in the subject or for being

     an editor with a magazine.

 

     In Chart 1 below there is a partial listing of different

occupations and the educational background generally required

for each. Some people who go on to acquire Jobs in the

four-year-college column obtain a graduate degree or some

graduate education, but many of these Jobs can be filled by

people who do not have more than a four-year college education.

For more information on the educational requirements of specific

jobs, contact a guidance counselor or check the Occupational

Outlook Handbook in your library. (See the last section of this

handbook for information on this book arid other publications

that discuss jobs.)

 

 

CHART I

 

 

Examples of Jobs Requiring College Preparation

 

 

Two-Year College

(Associate's Degree)

 

 

Electrician

Drafter

Dental Hygienist

Emergency Medical Technician

Computer Service Technician

Bookkeeper

Commercial Artist

Film Technician

Medical Illustrator

 

 

Four-Year College

(Bachelor's Degree)

 

 

Accountant

Teacher

Registered Nurse

Engineer

Journalist

Diplomat

Insurance Agent

 

 

More Than Four

Years of College

(Various Graduate

Degrees Required)

 

 

Lawyer

Doctor

Architect

Scientist

University Professor

Economist

Psychologist

Sociologist

Dentist

 

 

EXERCISE

 

 

Help Your Child Think About a Career

 

 

Step 1:

 

 

     Using the form on the next page, sit down with your child

and make a list of jobs that sound interesting. It may help to

first think about friends or people you've read about or have

seen on television who have interesting jobs. List those jobs

in the left-hand column. If your child cannot think of

interesting jobs, have him or her list subject areas of

interest. Then try to help your child identify jobs in those

subject areas. Depending on the job, there may be courses in

middle school or high school that will give your child a

preview of the type of knowledge that is needed for the

particular job. In the right-hand "Education" column, write

down the level of education required for the job and any high

school or college courses that may help your child prepare for

such a career.

 

 

Step 2:

 

 

     Take the form to your local library and, with the help of

a reference librarian, locate books on some of the careers your

child has selected. Libraries usually have directories that

list career requirements. It is not a problem if your child

does not know what career path he/she wants to follow; his or

her focus during these years should be on doing well in school.

 

(SEE FORM ON NEXT PAGE.)

 

[Form Omitted]

 

What can my child do to prepare academically for college?

 

 

     To prepare for college, there is no substitute for your

child getting a solid academic education. This means your child

should take challenging courses in academic subjects and

maintain good grades in high school. Your child's transcript

will be an important part of his or her college application.

 

     A college education builds on the knowledge and skills

acquired in earlier years. It is best for your child to start

planning a high school course schedule early, in the seventh or

eighth grade. Students who don't think ahead may have

difficulty completing all the required or recommended courses

that will help them qualify for college.

 

     Most selective colleges (those with the highest admissions

requirements) prefer to admit students who have taken courses

in certain subject areas. For example, many colleges prefer

that high school students take algebra, geometry, or some other

type of specialized math, rather than general math. Some

colleges prefer three or four years of a foreign language. Your

child's guidance counselor can help your child determine the

high school courses required or preferred by different types of

colleges. If your child is interested in specific colleges, he

or she can contact those schools and ask about their admissions

requirements.

 

     Your child should take courses in at least these core

areas:

 

  -- English

 

  -- mathematics

 

  -- science

 

  -- history and geography

 

     A foreign language and computer science are also highly

recommended.

 

     Chart 2 lists the high school courses that many higher

education associations and guidance counselors recommend for a

college-bound student. These courses are especially recommended

to students who want to attend a four-year college. Even if

your child is interested in attending a two-year college, he or

she should take most of these courses since they provide the

preparation necessary for all kinds of postsecondary education.

 

     If your child is interested in pursuing a vocational

program in a two-year college, he or she may want to supplement

or substitute some of the courses listed in the chart with some

vocational or technical courses in his or her field of

interest. Your child should take at least the suggested courses

in the core areas of English, math, science, history, and

geography.

 

     Traditional English courses such as American and English

literature will help students improve their writing skills,

reading comprehension, and vocabulary. History and geography

will help your child better understand our society as well as

societies around the world.

 

     Mathematical and scientific concepts and skills learned in

math classes are used in many disciplines outside of these

courses. A recent study showed that students who take algebra

and geometry in high school are much more likely to go on to

college than students who do not. Algebra and geometry are also

essential preparation for the college entrance examinations--the

SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) or the ACT Assessment.

 

     These tests measure a student's aptitude in mathematical

and verbal comprehension and problem solving. Students applying

to colleges in the East and West usually take the SAT exam.

Students applying to schools in the South and Midwest often

take the ACT. (However, students should check the admission

requirements at each school to which they are applying.)

Usually, the tests are offered in the Junior and senior years

of high school and can be taken more than once if a student

wishes to try to improve his or her score. Students can get

books at libraries or bookstores to help them to prepare for

all of the tests. Some of these books are listed at the back of

this resource book. In addition, some private organizations and

companies offer courses that help students prepare for these

exams.

 

 

CHART 2

 

 

High School Courses Recommended for a Four-Year College

 

 

     Although academic requirements differ across colleges, the

admissions requirements listed below are typical of four-year

colleges. The specific classes listed here are examples of the

types of courses students can take.

 

 

English -- 4 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     composition

     American literature

     English literature

     World literature

 

 

Laboratory Science -- 2 to 3 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     biology

     earth science

     chemistry

     physics

 

 

Mathematics -- 3 to 4 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     algebra I

     algebra II

     geometry

     trigonometry

     precalculus

     calculus

 

 

Foreign Language -- 2 to 3 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     French

     German

     Spanish

     Latin

     Russian

     Japanese

 

 

History & Geography -- 2 to 3 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     geography

     U.S. history

     U.S. government

     world history

     world cultures

 

 

Visual & Performing Arts -- 1 year

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     art

     dance

     drama

     music

 

 

Appropriate Electives -- 1 to 3 years

 

 

Types of classes:

 

     economics

     psychology

     statistics

     computer science

     communications

 

 

     Many schools offer the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude

Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT) to

their students. This is a practice test that helps students

prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). The PSAT is

usually administered to tenth or eleventh grade students. A

student who does very well on this test and who meets many

other academic performance criteria may qualify for the

National Merit Scholarship Program. You and your child can find

out more about the PSAT/NMSQT and the National Merit

Scholarship Program by talking to your child's guidance

counselor or by calling or writing to the number or address

provided in the back of this handbook.

 

     Some colleges also require that an applicant take one or

more Achievement Tests in major areas of study. It is a good

idea for a student to consult a guidance counselor about this

early in high school; often the best time to take an

Achievement Test is right after the student has taken a course

in that subject. For example, many students take the Biology

Achievement Test right after they have completed a course in

biology. This could mean that your child would take his or her

first Achievement Test as a freshman or sophomore in high

school.

 

     At the back of this handbook, in the section that lists

places where you can get additional information, you will find

the address and phone number where you can write or call for

more information about the SAT and the Achievement Tests. You

will also find the address and phone number for the

organization that administers the ACT.

 

      Knowing what will be required for college is important;

by taking the right courses and examinations from the beginning

of high school, your child may avoid admission problems later

on. In addition, students who do not prepare well enough

academically in high school, if admitted to college, may be

required to take remedial courses. Most colleges do not offer

credit for these courses, and students may have to pay for

these extra courses and spend extra time in college to earn

their degrees. Chart 3 lists some questions that you or your

child may want to ask your child's guidance counselor.

 

 

CHART 3

 

 

Questions To Ask Guidance Counselors

 

 

   * What basic academic courses do they recommend for students

     who want to go to college?

 

   * How many years of each academic subject does the high

     school require for graduation?

 

   * What elective courses do they recommend for college-bound

     students?

 

   * How does a student go about completing recommended courses

     before graduating from high school?

 

   * Can students who are considering college get special help

     or tutoring?

 

   * What activities can students do at home and over the

     summers to strengthen their preparation for college?

 

   * How much homework is expected of students preparing for

     college?

 

   * What kinds of high school grades do different colleges

     require?

 

 

Course Planner for Parent and Student

 

 

     This exercise will give you and your child a chance to

look ahead and choose future courses, but be aware that some

courses must be taken in sequence. On the form below, list your

child's current courses or courses he or she will take this

year. Then list courses that he or she will take during each

year of high school. If you are not sure what courses your

child should take, you should make an appointment with your

child's guidance counselor and get some advice.

 

[Form Omitted]

 

[Form Omitted]

 

[Form Omitted]

 

What can my child do outside the classroom to prepare

for college?

 

 

     Interpersonal and leadership skills, interests and goals

are all important for college preparation. independent reading

and study, extracurricular activities, and work experience will

all help your child develop his or her skills, interests, and

goals.

 

 

Independent Reading and Study

 

 

     Independent reading and study will help your child to

prepare academically for college. This is a good way to develop

interests, expand knowledge, and improve vocabulary and reading

comprehension skills needed for college and the SAT or ACT.

Encourage your child to read all kinds of books for

fun--fiction and non-fiction. The school library and the local

public library are good sources of books, magazines, and

newspapers.

 

 

Extracurricular Activities

 

 

     Many school, community, and religious organizations enable

high school students to explore their interests and talents by

providing activities outside the classroom. Colleges are often

interested in a student's extracurricular activities such as

school clubs, the student newspaper, athletics, musical

activities, arts, drama, and volunteer work, especially if a

student has excelled in one or more of these areas.

 

 

Work Experience

 

 

     Work experience--paid or volunteer--can teach students

discipline, responsibility, reliability, teamwork, and other

skills. Some students tutor elementary school children or

fellow students in a subject they have mastered themselves.

Others help the disadvantaged or volunteer in hospitals. Many

colleges are interested in knowing about this type of

experience.

 

     A summer job is a good way to gain experience and earn

money for college as well. If your child works during the

school year, he or she should not work so many hours that the

job interferes with school work.

 

 

Creating a Good Place To Study

 

 

     Your child needs a quiet and comfortable place to study.

Here are a few things that you can do:

 

 (1) Help him or her find a quiet place with some privacy.

 

 (2) Set up a desk or large table with good light and place

     reference books such as a dictionary on the desk or

     nearby.

 

 (3) Make sure your child studies there on a regular basis.

 

 

How can my child go about choosing a college?

 

 

     Colleges are located in big cities, suburbs, and small

towns throughout the country. Some enroll tens of thousands of

students; others enroll only a few hundred. Some are public;

others are private. Some private institutions are affiliated

with religious institutions; others are not. Some schools

enroll only women, others only men.

 

     The type of institution best suited to your child depends

on his or her individual needs and talents. Your child can

begin focusing on the choice of a college by considering the

following questions:

 

  -- Why do I want to go to college?

 

  -- What do I hope to achieve in college?

 

  -- Do I have some idea of what I want to study or for which

     job I want to prepare?

 

  -- Do I want to live at home or go away to school?

 

  -- Do I prefer an urban or suburban environment?

 

  -- Would I be happier in a small college or at a large

     university?

 

     In order to choose a college, you and your child should

ask the following questions about the nature and qualify of the

schools in which your child has an interest.

 

 

The Nature of the Education Offered

 

 

   * What is the philosophy of the particular college and what

     kinds of educational programs does this college offer?

 

 

     Ask about the college's specialties, which types of

classes the school offers, and in which fields students can

earn a degree or certificate. How many students study in each

area, and what do they do when they graduate?

 

 

   * How long does it take to earn a certificate or degree at

     this college?

 

 

     Students should know how much time it takes to complete a

program before they enroll in it. Programs can last anywhere

from a few months to several years. Also ask whether the time

involved reflects full-time or part-time attendance.

 

 

   * What do students do when they graduate from this school?

     Do they get jobs in the areas that they were trained for?

     Do they pursue further education?

 

 

     Job placement rates are particularly important for

vocational programs. If a very low percentage of students are

employed in their area of training a year after completing the

program, there may be a problem. It can also be useful to ask

about beginning salaries of program graduates and the

institution's career advising and placement services for its

students.

 

     Students who enroll in two-year colleges plans to transfer

to four-year colleges should inquire about the possibility of

doing so and about the number of graduates who transfer each

year. Students applying to four-year colleges may want to know

how many graduates go on to graduate or professional education.

 

 

The Quality of the College

 

 

   * How many students who start at this school earn a

     certificate or degree? How many drop out?

 

 

     A high drop-out rate may suggest that students are

dissatisfied with the education an institution provides. Be

particularly careful about having your child enroll in a school

that graduates a very low percentage of its students. Also ask

about tuition refund policies for students who drop out in the

first weeks of an educational program.

 

 

   * What is the default rate at this college? Do students

     repay their loans?

 

 

     The default rate is the percentage of students who took

out student loans to help pay their expenses but did not repay

them properly. A high default rate may suggest that students

who borrowed never completed their educational program, or that

they were unable to find jobs and repay the loans when they

graduated. Colleges with consistently high default rates may be

barred from student loan programs, and students attending these

institutions may thus be ineligible for Federal loans.

 

 

   * Have other students who have gone to this college liked

     it? What has their experience been?

 

 

     Colleges should be able to refer you to current students

or recent graduates of their programs. These individuals can

give you their opinion about classes, facilities, the faculty

(teachers), and the skills they have learned.

 

 

   * What kinds of facilities does this college have? Are they

     adequate for my child's needs?

 

 

     You and your child should consider the condition of

classrooms, libraries, and dormitories when choosing a college.

The types of facilities appropriate for a college depend on the

type of education provided. For example, a college offering

classes in the sciences should have modern laboratories, and an

institution that offers computer education classes should have

adequate computer facilities.

 

 

Admissions Requirements and Financial Aid

 

 

   * What admissions requirements does this college have?

 

 

     Each institution can require students to take certain high

school classes and submit certain items with their

applications. Make sure you know what is required by the

schools that interest your child.

 

 

   * Is this college accredited by an agency recognized by the

     Secretary of Education and eligible to participate in

     Federal student aid programs?

 

 

     Federal financial aid is available only to students

attending eligible institutions. Students attending other

institutions cannot receive Federal financial aid. If you are

interested in having your child apply for Federal financial

aid, be wary of unaccredited institutions and those with high

default rates. You can call the Federal Student Financial Aid

Information Center toll-free to find out if a particular

college is an eligible institution. The number is

1-800-4FED-AID.

 

 

EXERCISE

 

 

College Inquiries

 

 

     Using the form on the next page, help your child list the

colleges he/she knows about and might be interested in

attending. Write down whether they are two-year or four-year

colleges or universities. Ask your child why these schools are

appealing to him or her. You and your child may want to contact

the colleges to get more information.

 

[Form Omitted]

 

How much does a college education cost?

 

 

     Many people overestimate the cost of college or believe

that all schools are expensive. For example, a recent Gallup

survey indicated that 13- to 21-year-olds overestimated the

average cost of public two- and four-year colleges by more than

three times the actual figure. The same group estimated that

the costs of private four-year colleges were one-third higher

than they actually were.

 

     Although some colleges are expensive, costs vary from

institution to institution. In addition, the availability of

financial aid--money available from various sources to help

students pay for college--can make even an expensive college

affordable for a qualified student.

 

 

College Costs

 

 

     The basic costs of college are tuition, fees, and other

expenses:

 

 

   * Tuition

 

 

     Tuition is the amount of money that colleges charge for

instruction and for the use of some facilities, such as

libraries. Tuition can range from a few hundred dollars per

year to more than $18,000. However, there are a few

institutions that don't charge any tuition at all. As shown in

Chart 4, most students attend colleges that charge less than

$3,000 per year for tuition. This occurs because over

three-quarters of students attend public institutions whose

tuitions are much lower than those of private institutions.

 

[Graphic Omitted]

 

 

   * Fees

 

 

     Fees are charges (usually small) that cover costs

generally not associated with the student's course load, such

as costs of some athletic activities, student activities,

clubs, and special events.

 

 

   * Other Expenses

 

 

     Besides tuition and fees, students at most colleges and

universities pay for room, board, books, supplies,

transportation, and other miscellaneous costs. "Room and board"

refers to the cost of housing and food. Typical college costs

are listed in Chart 5 below.

 

 

CHART 5

 

 

Typical College Costs

 

 

Tuition          Books

Fees             Supplies

Room             Transportation

Board            Miscellaneous Expenses

 

 

Tuition at Public and Private Colleges

 

 

     It is important to know the difference between public and

private institutions. A school's private or public status has a

lot to do with its tuition.

 

 

 

   * Public Institutions

 

 

     Over three-quarters of all students in two- and four-year

colleges attend State or other public colleges. Since these

schools receive a large proportion of their budgets from State

or local government, they can charge students who live in that

State (in-state students) relatively low tuition. Students from

other States (out-of-state students) usually pay higher

tuition.

 

     In 1991-92, in-state students attending public four-year

colleges faced an average tuition and fees of $2,137 per year.

in-state students at public two-year colleges faced an average

tuition and fees of $1,022 per year in 1991-92.

 

     If the costs of room, board, books, supplies, and

transportation are added to tuition and fees, the average total

cost of attending a public four-year college was $6,437 in

1991-92. Since many students who attend two-year public schools

live at home, the average total cost of attending a two-year

public college in 1991-92 was $2,404. This includes the cost of

tuition, fees, books, supplies, and transportation for a

commuter student.

 

 

   * Private Institutions

 

 

     Private (sometimes called "independent") institutions

charge the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state

students. Private college tuitions tend to be higher than those

of public colleges because private schools receive less

financial support from States and local governments.

 

     Most private colleges are "non-profit." Other private

postsecondary schools-mostly vocational and trade schools--are

"proprietary." Such institutions are legally permitted to make

a profit. Students at private colleges in 1991-92 faced an

average tuition and fees of $10,017 per year at four-year

colleges and $5,290 per year at two-year non-profit colleges.

 

     If the costs of room, board, books, supplies, and

transportation are added to tuition and fees, the average total

cost of attending a private four-year college was $15,381 in

1991-92. If these same kinds of costs are added to the tuition

and fees of a two-year private college, the average total cost

of attending such a school was $10,019 in 1991-92.

 

     Chart 6 below shows the average tuition and fees faced by

students at four different kinds of colleges in school year

1991-92.

 

 

Future College Costs

 

 

     By the time your child is ready to attend college, the

tuition, fees, and costs of room, board, and other expenses

will be larger than the amounts discussed in this handbook.

Because there are many factors that affect the costs of a

college education, it is impossible to know exactly how much

colleges will charge when your child is ready to enroll. Be

cautious when people tell you a particular amount; no one can

be sure how much costs will change over time. In addition, as

college costs increase, the amount of money you earn, and thus

the amount you will have available to pay for college, will

also rise.

 

[Graphic Omitted]

 

How can I afford to send my child to college?

 

 

     Saving money in advance and obtaining financial aid are

common ways for parents to make their child's education

affordable. Other ways of making college affordable, such as

attending college part time, will be discussed later in this

handbook. (See the section beginning on page 32.)

 

 

Saving Money

 

 

     Saving money is the primary way to prepare for the costs

of college. Setting aside a certain amount every month or each

payday will help build up a fund for college. If you and your

child begin saving early, the amount you have to set aside each

month will be smaller.

 

     In order to set up a savings schedule, you'll need to

think about where your child might attend college, how much

that type of college might cost, and how much you can afford to

save. Keep in mind that colleges of the same type have a range

of costs and your child may be able to attend one that is less

expensive. You can also pay part of the costs from your

earnings while your child is attending school. In addition,

your child may also be able to meet some of the costs of

college by working during the school year or during the summer.

Finally, some Federal, State, or other student financial aid

may be available, including loans to you and to your child.

 

     You will also want to think about what kind of savings

instrument to use or what kind of investment to make. By

putting your money in some kind of savings instrument or

investment, you can set aside small amounts of money regularly

and the money will earn interest or dividends. Interest refers

to the amount that your money earns when it is kept in a

savings instrument. Dividends are payments of part of a

company's earnings to people who hold stock in the company.

 

     A savings instrument has an "interest rate" associated

with it; this refers to the rate at which the money in the

instrument increases over a certain period of time. Principal

refers to the face value or the amount of money you place in

the savings instrument on which the interest is earned.

 

     Chart 7 shows how much you would need to save each month

in order to have $10,000 available when your child begins

college. As the chart demonstrates, the amount varies depending

on the interest rate you obtain and the number of years that

you save. The higher the interest rate and the earlier you

begin to save, the less you need to set aside each month.

 

     For example, if you start saving when your child is born,

you will have 18 years to save. As shown on the chart, each

month you will only have to deposit $32 in an account earning 4

percent interest in order to save $10,099 by the time your

child is 18. However, if you use the same savings instrument

but do not start to save until your child is 16, you will have

to save $401 each month. In addition, if you use the instrument

with the higher interest rate--8 percent--you will only have to

put away $21 each month starting when your child is born.

 

     Remember, by starting to save early and by using

instruments with higher interest rates, you can put aside

smaller amounts. If you wait until later to start saving, you

may not be able to afford to put away the larger amounts of

money needed to meet your savings goals.

 

 

CHART 7

 

 

     Amount You Would Need To Save To Have $10,000 Available

When Your Child Begins College

 

 

                   Amount Available When Child Begins College

 

If you start  Number

saving when   of years   Monthly

your child    saving     Savings   Principal  Earned   Savings

 

(Assuming a 4 percent interest rate.)

 

Newborn         18         $32      $6,912    $3,187   $10,099

 

Age 4           14          45       7,560     2,552    10,112

 

Age 8           10          68       8,160     1,853    10,013

 

Age 12           6         124       8,928     1,144    10,072

 

Age 16           2         401       9,624       378    10,002

 

(Assuming an 8 percent interest rate.)

 

Newborn         18         $21      $4,536    $5,546   $10,082

 

Age 4           14          33       5,544     4,621    10,165

 

Age 8           10          55       6,660     3,462    10,062

 

Age 12           6         109       7,848     2,183    10,031

 

Age 16           2         386       9,264       746    10,010

 

 

 

     When deciding which type of savings instrument or

Investment is right for you and your family, you should

consider four features:

 

  -- Risk: The danger that the money you set aside could be

     worth less in the future.

 

  -- Return: The amount of money you earn on the savings

     instrument or investment through interest or dividends.

 

  -- Liquidity: How quickly you can gain access to the money in

     the instrument or investment.

 

  -- Time Frame: The number of years you will need to save or

     invest.

 

     When you select one or more savings instruments or

investments, you should balance these factors by minimizing the

risk while maximizing the return on your money. You will also

want to be sure that you will be able to access the money at

the time you need to pay for your child's education.

 

     If you start early enough, you may feel confident about

making some long-term investments. Some investments are riskier

than others but can help you earn more money over time. Chart 8

lists some of the major kinds of savings instruments and

investments that you may want to use. You can get more

information on these and other savings instruments at local

banks and at your neighborhood library.

 

     Don't forget that you won't necessarily have to save for

the entire cost of college. The following section tells about

student financial aid for which you and your child might

qualify and other ways to keep college costs down.

 

[Graphic Omitted]

 

Financial Aid

 

 

     Financial aid can help many families meet college costs.

Every year millions of students apply for and receive financial

aid. In fact, almost one-half of all students who go on for

more education after high school receive financial aid of some

kind. In school year 1990-91, postsecondary students received

about $28 billion in financial aid.

 

     There are three main types of financial assistance

available to qualified students at the college level:

 

  -- Grants and Scholarships;

 

  -- Loans; a

 

  -- Work-Study.

 

 

   * Grants and Scholarships

 

 

     Grants and scholarships provide aid that does not have to

be repaid. However, some require that recipients maintain

certain grade levels or take certain courses.

 

 

   * Loans

 

 

     Loans are another type of financial aid and are available

to both students and parents. Like a car loan or a mortgage for

a house, an education loan must eventually be repaid. Often,

payments do not begin until the student finishes school, and

the interest rate on education loans is commonly lower than for

other types of loans. For students with no established credit

record, it is usually easier to get student loans than other

kinds of loans.

 

     There are many different kinds of education loans. Before

taking out any loan, be sure to ask the following kinds of

questions:

 

  -- What are the exact provisions of the loan?

 

  -- What is the interest rate?

 

  -- Exactly how much has to be paid in interest?

 

  -- What will the monthly payments be?

 

  -- When will the monthly payments begin?

 

  -- How long will the monthly payments lost?

 

  -- What happens if you miss one of the monthly payments?

 

  -- Is there a grace period for paying back the loan?

 

     In all cases, a loan taken to pay for a college education

must be repaid, whether or not a student finishes school or

gets a job after graduation. Failure to repay a student loan

can ruin a person's credit rating and make finances much more

difficult in the future. This is an important reason to

consider a college's graduation and job placement rates when

you help your child choose a school.

 

 

   * Work-Study Programs

 

 

     Many students work during the summer and/ or part time

during the school year to help pay for college. Although many

obtain jobs on their own, many colleges also offer work-study

programs to their students. A work-study job is often part of a

student's financial aid package. The jobs are usually on campus

and the money earned is used to pay for tuition or other

college charges.

 

     The types of financial aid discussed above can be

merit-based, need-based, or a combination of merit-based and

need-based.

 

 

   * Merit-based Financial Aid

 

 

     Merit-based assistance, usually in the form of

scholarships or grants, is given to students who meet

requirements not related to financial needs. For example, a

merit scholarship may be given to a student who has done well

in high school or one who displays artistic or athletic talent.

Most merit-based aid is awarded on the basis of academic

performance or potential.

 

 

   * Need-based Financial Aid

 

 

     "Need-based" means that the amount of aid a student can

receive depends on the cost of the college and on his or her

family's ability to pay these costs. Most financial aid is

need-based and is available to qualified students.

 

 

What are the most common sources of financial aid?

 

 

     Student financial aid is available from a number of

sources, including the Federal Government, State governments,

colleges and universities, and other organizations. Students

can receive aid from more than one source.

 

 

   * Federal Financial Assistance

 

 

     The Federal Government supplies the largest amount of all

student aid, about 75 percent or $20 billion annually. The

largest and most popular Federal student aid programs are:

 

  -- Federal Pell Grants

 

     These are need-based grants that will be given to over 4

million students for school year 1992-93. In school year

1992-93, the maximum Pell Grant will be $2,400.

 

  -- Federal Stafford Loans

 

     Starting in October 1992 there will be two Stafford loan

programs-one need-based program and another non-need-based. In

1992 approximately 4 million students will receive Stafford

Loans.

 

     Under the need-based program, the Federal Government pays

interest on the loan while the student is in school and the

student starts paying back the loan and the interest after

graduation.

 

     Under the non-need-based loan program, the interest

accrues while the student is in school. After graduation the

student must pay back the loan and the interest on the loan,

including the interest that accrued while the student was in

school.

 

     Under the Stafford loan programs, the combined loan limits

are $2625 for the first year, $3500 for the second year, $5500

for the third or more years. An undergraduate cannot borrow

more than a total of $23,000.

 

     In addition to Federal Stafford Loans for students, two

other Federal loan programs are available through which

students or their parents can borrow funds to attend school.

 

  -- Federal Campus-Based Programs

 

     The Federal Government also provides money to colleges to

give to needy students. There are three Campus-Based

programs--a grant program (Supplemental Educational Opportunity

Grants or SEOGs), a loan program (Perkins Loans), and the

College Work-Study Program.

 

     Students can get aid from more than one Federal program.

For the most up-to-date information about student aid supplied

by the Federal Government, call the Federal Student Financial

Aid Information Center toll-free at the U.S. Department of

Education at 1-800-4FED-AID. You can also obtain a guide to

Federal financial aid for students, called The Student Guide,

which provides an extensive and updated discussion of all

Federal student aid programs. You can obtain the Guide by

writing to the following address:

 

Federal Student Aid Information Center

P.O. Box 84

Washington, D.C. 20044

 

Call: 1-800-4FED-AID

 

 

   * State Financial Assistance

 

 

     States generally give portions of State budgets to public

colleges and universities. This support lowers tuition for all

students attending these schools. Some States also offer

financial assistance directly to individual students, which can

be need-based or merit-based. To find out about State aid where

you live, call or write your State's higher education agency.

The phone numbers and addresses of all of these agencies are

listed in the last section of this handbook.

 

 

   * College/University Assistance

 

 

     Colleges themselves provide aid to many of their

students. Most of this "institutional aid" is in the form of

scholarships or grants. Some is need-based and some is

merit-based.

 

     When your child wants financial aid information about

specific schools, he or she should contact the financial aid

offices of these schools and request information.

 

 

   * Other Types of Assistance

 

 

     Other organizations, such as corporations, labor unions,

professional associations, religious organizations, and credit

unions, sometimes award financial aid. You can find out about

the availability of such scholarships by contacting someone

from the specific organization or by directly contacting its

main headquarters.

 

     In addition, some organizations, particularly foundations,

offer scholarships to minorities, women, and disabled students.

To learn more about such scholarships, go to the nearest public

library with a good reference section and look for directories

that list such scholarships. (The names of a few books that

list scholarships appear in the last section of this handbook.)

College admissions offices and high school guidance counselors

should also be able to provide more information about

scholarships.

 

 

   * Help in Getting More Information

 

 

     The guidance counselors at your child's high school should

be able to provide information on when and how to apply for

Federal, State, and other types of aid. If they cannot give you

this information, try a local college. Even if your child

doesn't plan to attend that particular institution, financial

aid officers there should have information on Federal financial

aid. Many colleges can also tell you about State aid and their

own institutional aid.

 

 

Is my child eligible for financial aid? If so, how much?

 

 

     To qualify for Federal aid, you or your child must submit

a financial aid application. Applications for financial aid

request information about your family's income, savings, and

assets, as well as information on the number of children in the

family who are in college. You can get a copy of the Federal

financial aid form by calling the toll-free number that was

mentioned earlier: 1-800-4FED-AID.

 

     To apply for other aid in addition to Federal aid, you may

need additional forms. High school guidance counselors can tell

you more about applying for financial aid, including where to

get forms you might need for State aid.

 

     From information you report on the financial aid forms,

your expected family contribution (EFC) is calculated. The EFC

is the amount of money a student and his or her family are

expected to contribute to the costs of attending college. Using

the EFC and other information that you provide, each college to

which you apply will determine your financial need. Financial

need equals the cost of education minus the EFC and represents

the maximum amount of need-based aid the student can receive.

In addition, students can borrow money to cover the EFC.

 

     Because financial aid determinations consider both

financial need and education costs, you should not rule out a

school because you think it costs too much. In fact, with

financial aid it may cost no more to attend an expensive

institution than a cheaper one. Chart 9 below summarizes the

simple calculation that is performed to determine financial

need.

 

 

CHART 9

 

 

How Much Need-Based Financial Aid Can My Child Get?

 

 

     The amount of need-based financial aid a student qualifies

for depends on his or her financial need. Financial need is

equal to the cost of education (estimated costs for college

attendance and basic living expenses) minus the family

contribution (the amount a student's family is expected to pay,

which varies according to the family's financial resources).

 

                       Expected

Cost of                Family                  Financial

Education            Contribution                Needs

 

 

Includes costs

of

 

Tuition                                    Students can receive

Fees              Based on the financial   up to this amount of

Room           -  resources of a student = need-based financial

Board             and his or her family    aid, such as Pell

Books Supplies                             Grants and Stafford

Transportation                             Loans.

 

 

     To give you a better idea of how you can finance your

child's college education, examples of two college students'

financial aid packages are shown below. Note that these

financial aid packages are Just examples of the kinds of

packages that students with these profiles would receive if

they attended the schools described below.

 

 

PROFILE 1 -- FIRST STUDENT

 

 

I. Student's Background

 

 

Family Income ....................................$12,000

Family Size.............................................4

Number of Family Members in College ....................1

 

 

II. Characteristics of the College That Student Would Like To

Attend and Student's Financial Aid Package at That College

 

 

A. A 2-Year Public College. Total cost of attending this

college comes to $4,000.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education ..........................$4,000

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents............$0

Student**(from summer job savings) .................$700

 

Financial Need....................................$3,300

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $4,000.

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $3,300.

Therefore, the financial aid package below was offered to the

student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

 

Financial Need....................................$3,300

 

Pell Grant.........................................2,400

SEOG***..............................................400

State Aid............................................500

 

Total Financial Aid ..............................$3,300

 

 

B. A 4-Year Public College. Total cost of attending this

institution comes to $6,500.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education ..........................$6,500

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents............$0

Student** (from summer job savings) ...............$ 700

 

Financial Need....................................$5,800

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $6,500.

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $5,800.

Therefore, the financial aid package below was offered to the

student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

Financial Need....................................$5,800

 

Pell Grant.........................................2,400

SEOG***..............................................600

Work-Study...........................................800

Perkins Loan****...................................1,000

State Aid..........................................1,000

 

Total Financial Aid ..............................$5,800

 

 

C. A 4-Year Private College. Total cost of attending this

institution comes to $15,200.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education .........................$15,200

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents............$0

Student** (from summer job savings) ...............$ 700

 

Financial Need ..................................$14,500

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $15,200.

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $14,500.

Therefore, the financial aid package below was offered to the

student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

Financial Need ..................................$14,500

 

Pell Grant.........................................2,400

SEOG***............................................1,000

Work-Study.........................................1,200

Perkins Loan****...................................1,000

Stafford Loan......................................1,500

State Aid..........................................1,400

Institutional Aid..................................6,000

 

Total Financial Aid .............................$14,500

 

 

PROFILE 2 -- SECOND STUDENT

 

 

I. Student's Background

 

 

Family Income .........................................$32,000

Family Size..................................................4

Number of Family Members in College ........................ 1

 

 

II. Characteristics of the College That Student Would Like To

Attend and Student's Financial Aid Package at That College

 

 

A. A 2-Year Public College. Total cost of attending this

college comes to $4,000.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education ..........................$4,000

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents........$1,500

Student** (from summer job savings) ...............$ 700

 

Financial Need ...................................$1,800

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $4,000.

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $1,800.

Therefore, the financial aid package below was offered to the

student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

Financial Need ...................................$1,800

 

Pell Grant...........................................700

SEOG*** .............................................500

Work-Study...........................................600

 

Total Financial Aid ..............................$1,800

 

 

B. A 4-Year Public College. Total cost of attending this

institution comes to $6,500.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education ..........................$6,500

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents .......$1,500

Student** (from summer job savings) ...............$ 700

 

Financial Need ...................................$4,300

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $6,500.

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $4,300.

Therefore, the following financial aid package was offered to

the student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

Financial Need ...................................$4,300

 

Pell Grant ...........................................700

SEOG***...............................................600

Work-Study..........................................1,400

Stafford Loan.......................................1,000

State Aid.............................................600

 

Total Financial Aid ...............................$4,300

 

 

C. A 4-Year Private College. Total cost of attending this

institution comes to $15,200.*

 

 

Student's Financial Aid Package at This College:

 

Total Cost of Education .........................$15,200

Expected Family Contribution (EFC) Parents .......$1,500

Student** (from summer job savings) ................$700

 

Financial Need ..................................$13,000

 

 

     For this student, the total cost of education is $15,200.*

When you subtract the EFC, the financial need is $13,000.

Therefore, the financial aid package below was offered to the

student.

 

 

Example of Financial Aid Package:

 

Financial Need ..................................$13,000

 

Pell Grant............................................700

SEOG***.............................................1,200

Work-Study..........................................1,500

Perkins Loan****....................................2,000

Stafford Loan.......................................2,500

State Aid.............................................800

Institutional Aid...................................4,300

 

Total Financial Aid ..............................$13,000

 

 

   * This "total cost" includes tuition, fees, room, board,

     books, supplies, and transportation.

 

  ** The student worked during two summer vacations while in

     high school and saved $700 for college.

 

 *** An SEOG is a Supplemental Educational Opportunity

     Grant--which is a Federal award that helps undergraduates

     with financial need, and is awarded by the school.

 

**** A Perkins Loan is a low-interest Federal loan for

     undergraduates and graduate students with financial need,

     and is awarded by the school.

 

 

Are there other ways to keep the cost of college down?

 

 

Enroll in a Two-Year College; Then Transfer to a Four-Year

College

 

 

     Local community colleges are usually the least expensive.

In addition to charging low tuition, they are located in the

area in which the student lives, which makes it possible to

save by living at home and commuting to campus.

 

     After completing an associate's degree or certificate in a

two-year college, students often can transfer to a four-year

college and work toward a bachelor's degree.

 

     If your child chooses this route, he or she needs to take

courses in the two-year college that will count toward a

bachelor's degree. Certain community college courses may not be

transferable to a four-year institution. Community college

admissions officers can explain transfer terms and

opportunities.

 

 

Work Part Time

 

 

     Some students choose to work part time and attend college

part time. If your child wishes to do this, he or she should

make sure that work, classes, and time for studying do not

conflict. Some institutions offer programs that enable students

to combine work and classes. Although going to school part time

is a good option for many students, it usually takes longer for

part-time students to earn their degrees.

 

 

Take Advantage of Armed Forces Education Programs

 

 

     All of the ways to get postsecondary educational training

through the Armed Forces are shown in Chart 10 below. The armed

forces offer educational programs during or after active duty.

If your child prefers to work toward a college degree

immediately after high school, attending one of the military

academies or attending a civilian school and enrolling in the

 

[Graphic Omitted]

 

     Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) program are

options. If your child wants to join the armed forces before

attending college full time, he or she can attend college after

military service by taking advantage of the Montgomery GI Bill

or by obtaining college credit for some of the military

training he or she will receive.

 

 

   * Military Academies

 

 

     Each branch of the military, with the exception of the

Marine Corps, has its own academy--a four-year college that

offers a bachelor's degree and a commission in the military

upon graduation. The military academies are highly competitive

and are tuition-free to students who are admitted. The three

main military academies are:

 

 (1) U.S. Military Academy, located in West Point, New York;

 

 (2) U.S. Naval Academy, located in Annapolis, Maryland; and

 

 (3) U.S. Air Force Academy, located in Colorado Springs,

     Colorado.

 

 

   * ROTC

 

 

     In the ROTC scholarship program, the military covers the

cost of tuition, fees, and textbooks and also provides a

monthly allowance. Scholarship recipients participate in summer

training while in college and fulfill a service commitment

after college.

 

 

   * The Montgomery GI Bill

 

 

     This bill provides financial support for people who wish

to pursue a college education after serving in the military.

 

 

   * Other Ways To Get a College Education in the Armed Forces

 

 

     Most branches of the military offer some kind of tuition

assistance program that enables members to take college courses

at civilian colleges during their off-duty hours while on

active duty. In addition, military training while on active

duty can sometimes count toward college credit. All branches of

the military offer training in various technical and vocational

areas, and military enrollees can often obtain college credit

for some of this training.

 

 

     Local armed forces recruiting offices can provide detailed

information about education opportunities through the military.

 

 

How do I set up a long-range plan?

 

 

     Step by step, you can help your child make informed

decisions about his or her education, do well academically,

learn about colleges, and find the best possible opportunities

for a college education.

 

     Following are two checklists that are designed to help you

and your child, year by year, progress toward preparing for

college--both academically and financially. The first list

speaks directly to your child, although he or she may need your

help. The second list speaks directly to you.

 

 

College Preparation Checklist for Students

 

 

PRE-HIGH SCHOOL:

 

   * Take challenging classes in English, mathematics, science,

     history, geography, and a foreign language.

 

   * Develop strong study skills.

 

   * Start thinking about which high school classes will best

     prepare you for college.

 

   * If you have an opportunity to choose among high schools,

     or among different programs within one high school,

     investigate the options and determine which ones will help

     you --

 

           further your academic and career interests and

 

           open doors to many future options.

 

   * Investigate different ways to save money--buying a U.S.

     Savings Bond or opening a savings account in a bank, etc.

 

 

   * Start saving for college if you haven't already.

 

 

HIGH SCHOOL:

 

 

gth GRADE

 

 

   * Take challenging classes in English, mathematics, science,

     history, geography, and a foreign language.

 

   * Get to know your career counselor or guidance counselor,

     and other college resources available in your school.

 

   * Talk to adults in a variety of professions to determine

     what they like and dislike about their jobs and what kind

     of education is needed for each kind of job.

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

10TH GRADE

 

 

   * Take challenging classes in English, mathematics, science,

     history, geography, and a foreign language.

 

   * Talk to adults in a variety of professions to determine

     what they like and dislike about their jobs, and what kind

     of education is needed for each kind of job.

 

   * Become involved in school- or community- based

     extracurricular (before or after school) activities that

     interest you and/or enable you to explore career

     interests.

 

   * Meet with your career counselor or guidance counselor to

     discuss colleges and their requirements.

 

   * Take the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/National

     Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT). You must

     register early. If you have difficulty paying the

     registration fee, see your guidance counselor about

     getting a fee waiver.

 

   * Take advantage of opportunities to visit colleges and talk

     to students.

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

11TH GRADE

 

 

   * Take challenging classes in English, mathematics, science,

     history, geography, and a foreign language.

 

   * Meet with your career counselor or guidance counselor to

     discuss colleges and their requirements.

 

   * Continue involvement in school- or community-based

     extracurricular activities.

 

   * Decide which colleges most interest you. Write these

     schools to request information and an application for

     admission. Be sure to ask about special admissions

     requirements, financial aid, and deadlines.

 

   * Talk to college representatives at college fairs.

 

   * Take advantage of opportunities to visit colleges and talk

     to students.

 

   * Consider people to ask for recommendations--teachers,

     counselors, employers, etc.

 

   * Investigate the availability of financial aid from

     Federal, State, local, and private sources. Call the

     Student Aid Hotline at the U.S. Department of Education

     (1-800-4FED-AID) for a student guide to Federal financial

     aid. Talk to your guidance counselor for more information.

 

   * Investigate the availability of scholarships provided by

     organizations such as corporations, labor unions,

     professional associations, religious organizations, and

     credit unions.

 

   * If applicable, go to the library and look for directories

     of scholarships for women, minorities, and disabled

     students.

 

   * Register for and take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),

     the ACT, Achievement Tests, or any other exams required

     for admission to the colleges you might want to attend. If

     you have difficulty paying the registration fee, see your

     guidance counselor about getting a fee waiver.

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

12TH GRADE

 

 

   * Take challenging classes in English, mathematics, science,

     history, geography, and a foreign language.

 

   * Meet with your counselor early in the year to discuss your

     plans.

 

   * Complete all necessary financial aid forms. Make sure that

     you fill out at least one form that can be used for

     Federal aid.

 

   * Write colleges to request information and applications for

     admission. Be sure to ask about financial aid, admissions

     requirements, and deadlines.

 

   * If possible, visit the colleges that most interest you.

 

   * Register for and take the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT),

     American College Test (ACT), Achievement Tests, or any

     other exams required for admission to the colleges to

     which you are applying. If you have difficulty paying the

     registration fee, see your guidance counselor about

     getting a fee waiver.

 

   * Prepare your application carefully. Follow the

     instructions, and PAY CLOSE ATTENTION TO DEADLINES! Be

     sure to ask your counselor and teachers at least two weeks

     before your application deadlines to submit the necessary

     documents to colleges (your transcript, letters of

     recommendation, etc.).

 

 

Financial Preparation Checklist for Parents

 

 

PRE-HIGH SCHOOL:

 

 

   * Investigate different ways to save money--buying a U.S.

     Savings Bond or opening a savings account in a bank, etc.

 

   * Start saving money for your child's college education.

 

 

HIGH SCHOOL:

 

 

9TH GRADE

 

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

10TH GRADE

 

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

11TH GRADE

 

 

   * Help your child investigate the availability of financial

     aid from Federal, State, local, and private sources. Call

     the Student Aid Hotline at the U.S. Department of

     Education (1-800-4FED-AID) for a student guide to Federal

     financial aid. Have your child talk to his/her guidance

     counselor for more information.

 

   * Help your child investigate the availability of

     scholarships provided by organizations such as

     corporations, labor unions, professional associations,

     religious organizations, and credit unions.

 

   * If applicable, go to the library with your son or daughter

     and look for directories on scholarships for women,

     minorities, and disabled students.

 

 

12TH GRADE

 

 

   * Make sure your child completes all necessary financial aid

     forms. Be sure that he or she completes at least one form

     that can be used for Federal aid.

 

   * Continue to save for college.

 

 

What terms do I need to understand?

 

 

     Below is a glossary of some terms that you may want to

remember:

 

 

A.A.: This stands for an "associate of arts" degree, which can

be earned at most two-year colleges.

 

A.A.S.: This refers to an "associate of applied science"

degree, which can be earned at some two-year colleges.

 

Achievement Test: Achievement Tests are offered in many areas

of study including English, mathematics, many sciences,

history, and foreign languages. Some colleges require students

to take one or more Achievement Tests when they apply for

admission. Write to the address on page 41 of this handbook for

more information about such tests.

 

ACT: This is a test published by American College Testing,

which measures a student's aptitude in mathematical and verbal

comprehension and problem solving. Many colleges in the South

and Midwest require students to take this test and submit their

test scores when they apply for admission. Some colleges accept

this test or the SAT. (See below for explanation of SAT.) Most

students take the ACT or the SAT during their junior or senior

year of high school.

 

B.A. or B.S.: B.A. stands for "bachelor of arts," and B.S.

stands for "bachelor of science." Both degrees can be earned at

four-year colleges. Some colleges only grant B.A.s and others

only grant B.S.s--it depends on the kinds of courses offered at

the particular college.

 

Certificates of Deposit: See chaff beginning on page 22.

 

Default Rate: The default rate is the percentage of students

who took out Federal student loans to help pay their expenses

but did not repay them properly.

 

Dividends: Dividends are payments of part of a company's

earnings to people who hold stock in the company.

 

Expected Family Contribution (EFC): An amount, determined by a

formula that is specified by law, that indicates how much of a

family's financial resources should be available to help pay

for school. Factors such as taxable and non-taxable income,

assets (such as savings and checking accounts), and benefits

(for example, unemployment or Social Security) are all

considered in this calculation. The EFC is used in determining

eligibility for Federal need-based aid.

 

Fees: These are charges that cover costs not associated with

the student's course load, such as costs of some athletic

activities, clubs, and special events.

 

Financial Aid: Financial aid in this handbook refers to money

available from various sources to help students pay for

college.

 

Financial Aid Package: The total amount of financial aid a

student receives. Federal and non-Federal aid such as grants,

loans, or work-study are combined in a "package" to help meet

the student's need. Using available resources to give each

student the best possible package of aid is one of the major

responsibilities of a school's financial aid administrator.

 

Financial Need: In the context of student financial aid,

financial need is equal to the cost of education (estimated

costs for college attendance and basic living expenses) minus

the expected family contribution (the amount a student's family

is expected to pay, which varies according to the family's

financial resources).

 

General Educational Development (GED) Certificate: The

certificate students receive if they have passed a high school

equivalency test. Students who don't have a high school diploma

but who have a GED will still qualify for Federal student aid.

 

Grant: A grant is a sum of money given to a student for the

purposes of paying at least pad of the cost of college. A grant

does not have to be repaid.

 

Individual Corporate Bonds or Stocks: See chapter beginning on

page 22.

 

Interest: This refers to the amount that your money earns when

it is kept in a savings instrument.

 

Investment: In this handbook, an investment refers to using

your money to invest in something that will enable you to earn

interest or dividends over time.

 

Liquidity: A term that refers to how quickly you can gain

access to money that you invest or deposit in some kind of

savings instrument.

 

Loan: A loan is a type of financial aid that is available to

students and to the parents of students. An education loan must

be repaid. In many cases, however, payments do not begin until

the student finishes school.

 

Merit-based Financial Aid: This kind of financial aid is given

to students who meet requirements not related to financial

needs. Most merit-based aid is awarded on the basis of academic

performance or potential and is given in the form of

scholarships or grants.

 

Money Market Accounts/Money Market Mutual Funds: See chart

beginning on page 22.

 

Mutual Funds: See chart beginning on page 22.

 

Need-based Financial Aid: This kind of financial aid is given

to students who are determined to be in financial need of

assistance based on their income and assets and their families'

income and assets, as well as some other factors.

 

Open Admissions: This term means that a college admits most or

all students who apply to the school. At some colleges it means

that anyone who has a high school diploma or a GED can enroll.

At other schools it means that anyone over 18 can enroll. "Open

admissions," therefore, can mean slightly different things at

different schools.

 

Pell Grants: These are Federal need-based grants that will be

given to over 4 million students for school year 1992-93. In

school year 1992-93, the maximum Pell Grant will be

 

Perkins Loan: This is a Federal financial aid program that

consists of low-interest loans for undergraduates and graduate

students with financial need, and is awarded by the school.

 

Postsecondary: This term means "after high school" and refers

to all programs for high school graduates, including programs

at two- and four-year colleges and vocational and technical

schools.

 

Principal: This refers to the face value or the amount of money

you place in a savings instrument on which interest is earned.

 

Proprietary: This is a term used to describe postsecondary

schools that are private and are legally permitted to make a

profit. Most proprietary schools offer technical and vocational

courses.

 

PSAT/NMSQT: This stands for the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude

Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test, a practice

test that helps students prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude

Test (SAT). The PSAT is usually administered to tenth or

eleventh grade students. Although colleges do not see a

student's PSAT/NMSQT score, a student who does very well on

this test and who meets many other academic performance

criteria may qualify for the National Merit Scholarship

Program.

 

Return: Return refers to the amount of money you earn through a

financial investment or savings instrument. You earn money on

investments and savings instruments through interest earnings

or dividends.

 

Risk: In reference to saving money or investing money, risk

refers to the danger that the money you set aside in some kind

of savings plan or investment could be worth less in the

future.

 

ROTC: This stands for Reserve Officers Training Corps program,

which is a scholarship program wherein the military covers the

cost of tuition, fees, and textbooks and also provides a

monthly allowance. Scholarship recipients participate in summer

training while in college and fulfill a service commitment

after college.

 

SAT: This stands for the Scholastic Aptitude Test, which is a

test that measures a student's aptitude in mathematical and

verbal comprehension and problem solving. Many colleges in the

East and West require students to take the SAT and to submit

their test scores when they apply for admission. Some colleges

accept this test or the ACT. (See above for an explanation of

the ACT.) Most students take the SAT or the ACT during their

junior or senior year of high school.

 

Savings Accounts: See chart beginning on page 22.

 

Savings Instrument: In this document, savings instrument refers

to any kind of savings plan or mechanism you can use to save

money over time. Examples of savings instruments discussed in

this handbook are savings accounts, certificates of deposit

(CDs), and money market accounts.

 

Scholarship: A scholarship is a sum of money given to a student

for the purposes of paying at least part of the cost of

college. Scholarships can be awarded to students based on

students' academic achievements or on many other factors.

 

SEOG (Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant): This is a

Federal award that helps undergraduates with financial need,

and is awarded by the school. The SEOG does not have to be paid

back.

 

Stafford Loans: These are student loans offered by the Federal

Government. Starting in October 1992, there will be two

Stafford Loan programs -- one need-based program and another

non-need-based. Under the Stafford Loan program, students can

borrow money to attend school and the Federal Government will

guarantee the loan in case of default: Under the Stafford Loan

programs, the combined loan limits are $2625 for the first

year, $3500 for the second year, $5500 for the third or more

years. An undergraduate cannot borrow more than a total of

$23,000.

 

Transcript: This is a list of all the courses a student has

taken with the grades that the student earned in each course. A

college will often require a student to submit his or her high

school transcript when the student applies for admission to the

college.

 

Tuition: This is the amount of money that colleges charge for

classroom and other instruction and use of some facilities such

as libraries. Tuition can range from a few hundred dollars per

year to more than $18,000. A few colleges do not charge any

tuition.

 

U.S. Government Securities: See chapter beginning on page 22.

 

U.S. Savings Bonds: See chapter beginning on page 22.

 

Work-Study Programs: These programs are offered by many

colleges. They allow students to work pad time during the

school year as part of their financial aid package. The jobs

are usually on campus and the money earned is used to pay for

tuition or other college charges.

 

 

Where can I get more information on the topics discussed in

this handbook?

 

 

     In this section you will find phone numbers, addresses,

and books that you can use to get more information about

planning for college both financially and academically. You

should be able to find most of these books and others like them

at your local library.

 

     The following publications and organizations represent a

partial list of such sources of information. Their placement on

this list does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S.

Department of Education.

 

 

Books About Occupations and Careers

 

 

 (1) The Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1992-93 Edition. U.S.

     Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.

 

 (2) Careers for the '90s: Everything You Need To Know to Find

     the Right Career. Research and Education Association,

     1991.

 

 (3) The College Board Guide to Jobs and Career Planning, Joyce

     Slayton Mitchell. The College Board, 1990.

 

 

Books About Choosing a College

 

 

 (1) The College Handbook, 1992. The College Board, 1991.

 

 (2) Peterson's Guide to Four-Year Colleges, 1993, Twenty-Third

     Edition. Peterson's Guides, Inc., 1992.

 

 (3) Barron's Profiles of American Colleges, Nineteenth

     Edition. Barron's Educational Series, Inc., 1992.

 

 

Information About Taking Standardized Tests

 

 

 (1) The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Achievement

     Tests. Write or call:

 

The College Board/ATP

P.O. Box 6200

Princeton, NJ 08541

 

Phone: 609-771-7600

 

 (2) The ACT. Write or call:

 

ACT Registration

P.O. Box 414

Iowa City, IA 52243

 

Phone: 319-337-1270

 

 (3) The Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test/ National Merit

     Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT). Write or call:

 

PSAT/NMSQT

P.O. Box 24700

Oakland, CA 94632-1700

 

Phone: 609-683-0449 or 510-653-5595

 

 

Books About Preparing for Standardized Tests

 

 

 (1) Barron's How To Prepare for the Preliminary Scholastic

     Aptitude Test/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test,

     Seventh Edition, Samuel Brownstein, Mitchel Weiner, and

     Sharon Welner Green. Barron's Educational Series, Inc.,

     1989.

 

 (2) Barron's How to Prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude Test,

     Sixteenth Edition, Samuel C. Brownstein, Mitchel Welner,

     and Sharon Welner Green. Barron's Educational Series,

     Inc., 1991.

 

 (3) Cracking the SAT and the PSAT, 1993 Edition, Adam

     Robinson and John Katzman. The Princeton Review, 1992.

 

 

Books About Financing Your Child's Education

 

 

 (1) How To Pay For Your Children's College Education, Gerald

     Krefetz. The College Board, 1988.

 

 (2) Meeting College Costs. The College Board, 1991. (booklet)

 

 (3) College Financial Aid, Fourth Edition. College Research

     Group of Concord, Massachusetts, and John Schwartz. Arco

     Publishing, a Division of Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1991.

 

 

Information About U.S. Savings Bonds

 

 

Write to:

 

Office of Public Affairs

U.S. Savings Bonds Division

Washington, DC 20226

 

 

Information About Federal Student Financial Aid

 

 

Request The Student Guide by writing to:

 

Federal Student Aid Information Center

P.O. Box 84

Washington, DC 20044

 

Call the Federal Student Financial Aid Information Center

toll-free at 1-800-4FED-AID.

 

 

Books About Private Sources of Financial Aid

 

 

 (1) Foundation Grants to Individuals, Seventh Edition. The

     Foundation Center, 1991.

 

 (2) The A's and B's Of Academic Scholarships, Deborah L.

     Klein, Editor. Octameron Associates, 1992.

 

 (3) The Scholarship Book, Third Edition, Daniel J. Cassidy and

     Michael J. Alves. Prentice Hall, Inc., 1990.

 

 

Information About Opportunities in Each State

 

 

     For Information about State financial aid and colleges and

universities in specific States, contact the agencies listed

below. They can provide you with other contacts in the State

for more information.

 

 

ALABAMA

 

Executive Director

Commission on Higher Education

One Court Square, #221

Montgomery, Alabama 36197-3584

(205) 269-2700

FAX: 240-3349

 

 

ALASKA

 

Executive Director

Alaska Postsecondary Education Commission

P.O. Box 110505

Juneau, Alaska 99811-0505

(907) 465-2962

FAX: 586-4002

 

President

University of Alaska System

202 Butrovich Building

Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5560

(907) 474-7311

FAX: 474-7570

 

 

ARIZONA

 

Executive Director

Arizona Board of Regents

2020 North Central, Suite 230

Phoenix, Arizona 85012

(602) 229-2500

FAX: 229-2555

 

 

ARKANSAS

 

Director

Department of Higher Education

114 East Capitol

Little Rock, Arkansas 72201

(501) 324-9300

FAX: 324-9308

 

 

CALIFORNIA

 

Executive Director

California Postsecondary Education Commission

1303 J Street, 5th Floor

Sacramento, California 95814-2983

(916) 445-1000

FAX: 327-4417

 

California Student Aid Commission

1515 "S" Street

North Building, Suite 500

P.O. Box 510845

Sacramento, California 94245-0845

(916) 445-0880

 

 

COLORADO

 

Executive Director

Commission on Higher Education

1300 Broadway, 2nd Floor

Denver, Colorado 80203

(303) 866-4034

FAX: 860-9750

 

 

CONNECTICUT

 

Commissioner of Higher Education

Department of Higher Education

61 Woodland Street

Hartford, Connecticut 06105

(203) 566-5766

FAX: 566-7865

 

 

DELAWARE

 

Executive Director

Delaware Higher Education Commission

820 French Street

Wilmington, Delaware 19801

(302) 577-3240

FAX: 577-3862

 

 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

 

Chief

Office of Postsecondary Education Research and Assistance

2100 M. L. King Jr. Avenue, #401

Washington, D.C. 20020

(202) 727-3685

 

 

FLORIDA

 

Executive Director

Postsecondary Education Planning Commission

Florida Education Center

Collins Building

Tallahassee, Florida 32399

(904) 488-7894

FAX: 922-5388

 

Office of Student Financial Assistance

Florida Department of Education

Florida Education Center, Suite 1344

Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0400

(904) 488-1034

 

 

GEORGIA

 

Chancellor

Board of Regents

University System of Georgia

244 Washington Street, S.W.

Atlanta, Georgia 30334

(404) 656-22O4

FAX: 651-9301

 

Georgia Student Finance Commission

2082 East Exchange Place, Suite 200

Tucker, Georgia 30084

(404) 493-5402

 

 

HAWAII

 

President

University of Hawaii System

2444 Dole Street

Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808) 956-8213

 

Hawaii State Postsecondary Education Commission

2444 Dole Street

Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

(808) 956-8213

 

 

IDAHO

 

Executive Director for Higher Education

State Board of Education

650 West State Street, #307

Boise, Idaho 83720

(208) 334-2270

FAX: 334-2632

 

 

ILLINOIS

 

Executive Director

Board of Higher Education

500 Relsch Building

4 West Old Capital Square

Springfield, Illinois 62701

(217) 782-2551

FAX: 782-8548

 

Illinois Student Assistance Commission

Executive Offices

500 West Monroe Street, Third Floor

Springfield, Illinois 62704

(217) 782-6767

 

 

INDIANA

 

Commissioner for Higher Education

Commission for Higher Education

101 West Ohio Street, Suite 550

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204-1909

(317) 232-1900

FAX: 232-1899

 

State Student Assistance Commission of Indiana

964 North Pennsylvania Street

Indianapolis, Indiana 46204

(317) 232-2350

 

 

IOWA

 

Executive Director

State Board of Regents

Old State Historical Building

East 12th & Grand

Des Moines, Iowa 50319

(515) 281-3934

FAX: 281-6420

 

Iowa College Student Aid Commission

201 Jeweft Building

914 Grand Avenue

Des Moines, Iowa 50309

(515) 281-3501

 

 

KANSAS

 

Executive Director

Kansas Board of Regents

400 SW 8th Street, #609

Topeka, Kansas 66603

(913) 296-3421

FAX: 296-0983

 

 

KENTUCKY

 

Executive Director

Council on Higher Education

W. Frankfort Office Complex

1050 U.S. 127 South

Frankfort, Kentucky 40601

(502) 564-3553

FAX: 564-2063

 

Kentucky Higher Education Assistance Authority

1050 U.S. 127 South, Suite 102

Frankfort, Kentucky 40601

(502) 564-7990

 

 

LOUISIANA

 

Commissioner

Board of Regents

150 Riverside Mall, Suite 129

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70801-1303

(504) 342-4253

FAX: 342-9318

 

Office of Student Financial Assistance, Louisiana Student

Financial Assistance Commission

P.O. Box 91202

Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70821-9202

(504) 922-1011

 

 

MAINE

 

Chancellor

University of Maine System

107 Maine Avenue

Bangor, Maine 04401-1805

(207) 947-0336

FAX: 947-0336 x293

 

Financial Authority of Maine,

Maine Education Assistance Division

One Weston Court

State House, Station 119

Augusta, Maine 04333

(207) 289-2183

 

 

MARYLAND

 

Secretary of Higher Education

Maryland Higher Education Commission

16 Francis Street

Annapolis, Maryland 21401

(410) 974-2971

FAX: 974-5376

 

 

MASSACHUSETTS

 

Chancellor

Higher Education Coordinating Council

1 Ashburton Place, Room 1401

Boston, Massachusetts 02108-1530

(617) 727-7785

FAX: 727-6397

 

Massachusetts State Scholarship Office

330 Stuart Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02 116

(617) 727-9420

 

 

MICHIGAN

 

Associate Superintendent for Postsecondary Education

State Department of Education

P.O. Box 30008

Lansing, Michigan 48909

(517) 335-4933

FAX: 335-4565

 

Michigan Higher Education Assistance Authority

P.O. Box 30008

Lansing, Michigan 48909

(517) 373-3394

 

 

MINNESOTA

 

Executive Director

Higher Education Coordinating Board

550 Cedar Street, #400

St. Paul, Minnesota 55101

(612) 296-9665

FAX: 296-3272

 

 

MISSISSIPPI

 

Commissioner

Board of Trustees of State Institutions of Higher Learning

3825 Ridgewood Road

Jackson, Mississippi 39211

(601) 982-6611

FAX: 987-4172

 

 

MISSOURI

 

Commissioner of Higher Education

Coordinating Board for Higher Education

101 Adams Street

Jefferson City, Missouri 65101

(314) 751-2361

FAX: 751-6635

 

 

MONTANA

 

Commissioner of Higher Education

Montana University System

33 South Last Chance Gulch

Helena, Montana 59620

(406) 444-6570

FAX: 444-7729

 

 

NEBRASKA

 

Executive Director

Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education

6th Floor, State Capitol

P.O. Box 95005

Lincoln, Nebraska 68509

(402) 471-2847

FAX: 471-2886

 

 

NEVADA

 

Chancellor

University of Nevada System

2601 Enterprise Road

Reno, Nevada 89512

(702) 784-4901

FAX: 784-1127

 

Nevada Department of Education

400 West King Street, Capitol Complex

Carson City, Nevada 89710

(702) 687-5915

 

 

NEW HAMPSHIRE

 

Executive Director

New Hampshire Postsecondary Education Commission

Two Industrial Park Drive

Concord, New Hampshire 03301-8512

(603) 271-2555

 

Chancellor

University System of New Hampshire

Dunlap Center

Durham, New Hampshire 03824-3563

(603) 868-1800

FAX: 868-2756

 

 

NEW JERSEY

 

New Jersey Department of Higher Education Office of Student

Assistance and Information Systems

4 Quakerbridge Plaza, CN 540

Trenton, New Jersey 08625

1-800-792-8670

 

 

NEW MEXICO

 

Executive Director

Commission on Higher Education

1068 Cerrillos Road

Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501-4295

(505) 827-7383

FAX: 827-7392

 

 

NEW YORK

 

Commissioner for Higher and Continuing Education

Room 5B28 Cultural Education Center

New York State Education Department

Albany, New York 12230

(518) 474-5851

FAX: 486-2175

 

The New York State Higher Education Services Corporation

99 Washington Ave.

Albany, New York 12255

(518) 473-0431

 

 

NORTH CAROLINA

 

Vice President for Planning

University of North Carolina

General Administration

P.O. Box 2688

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27515-2688

(919) 962-6981

FAX: 962-0488

 

North Carolina State Education Assistance Authority (NCSEAA)

P.O. Box 2688

Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27515-2688

(919) 549-8614

 

College Foundation, Inc.

2100 Yonkers Road

Raleigh, North Carolina 27604

(919) 821-4771

 

 

NORTH DAKOTA

 

Chancellor

North Dakota University System

State Capitol Building

Bismarck, North Dakota 58505

(701) 224-2960

FAX: 224-2961

 

 

OHIO

 

Chancellor

Ohio Board of Regents

30 East Broad Street, 36th Floor

Columbus, Ohio 4326-0417

(614) 466-0887

FAX: 466-5866

 

 

OKLAHOMA

 

Chancellor

State Regents for Higher Education

500 Education Building

State Capitol Complex

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105

(405) 524-9100

FAX: 524-9235

 

 

OREGON

 

Chancellor

State System of Higher Education

P.O. Box 3175

Eugene, Oregon 97403-1075

(503) 346-5700

FAX: 346-5764

 

Oregon State Scholarship Commission

1445 Willamette Street

Eugene, Oregon 97401

(503) 346-4166

 

 

PENNSYLVANIA

 

Commissioner for Higher Education

State Department of Education

333 Market Street

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17126

(717) 787-5041

FAX: 783-5420

 

Pennsylvania Higher Education Assistance Agency

660 Boas Street

Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17102

(717) 257-2500

 

 

PUERTO RICO

 

Executive Director

Council on Higher Education

Box 23305, UPR Station

San Juan, Puerto Rico 00931

(809) 758-3350

FAX: 763-6760

 

 

RHODE ISLAND

 

Commissioner of Higher Education

Office of Higher Education

301 Promenade Street

Providence, Rhode Island 02908

(401) 277-6560

FAX: 277-6111

 

Rhode Island Higher Education Assistance Authority

560 Jefferson Boulevard

Warwick, Rhode Island 02886

(401) 277-2050

 

 

SOUTH CAROLINA

 

Commissioner

Commission on Higher Education

1333 Main Street, Suite 300

Columbia, South Carolina 29201

(803) 253-6260

FAX: 253-6267

 

South Carolina Higher Education Tuition Grants Commission

1310 Lady Street

P.O. Box 12159

Columbia, South Carolina 29211

(803) 734-1200

 

 

SOUTH DAKOTA

 

Executive Director

Board of Regents

207 East Capitol Avenue

Pierre, South Dakota 57501-3159

(605) 773-3455

FAX: 773-5320

 

Department of Education and Cultural Affairs, Office of the

Secretary

700 Governors Drive

Pierre, South Dakota 57501-2291

(605) 773-3134

 

 

TENNESSEE

 

Executive Director

Tennessee Higher Education Commission

404 James Robertson Parkway

Parkway Towers, Suite 1900

Nashville, Tennessee 37219-5380

(615) 741-7562

FAX: 741-6230

 

Tennessee Student Assistance Corporation

Parkway Towers, Suite 1950

404 James Robertson Parkway

Nashville, Tennessee 37243-0820

(615) 741-1346

 

 

TEXAS

 

Commissioner

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

P.O. Box 12788, Capitol Station

Austin, Texas 78711

(512) 483-6101

FAX: 483-6127

 

Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board

P.O. Box 12788, Capitol Station

Austin, Texas 78711

(512) 483-6340

 

 

UTAH

 

Commissioner of Higher Education

Utah System of Higher Education

355 West North Temple

3 Triad Center, Suite 550

Salt Lake City, Utah 84181-1205

(801) 538-5247

FAX: 521-6930

 

 

VERMONT

 

Vermont Student Assistance Corporation

P.O. Box 2000, Champlain Mill

Winooski, Vermont 05404-2601

(802) 655-9602

 

Chancellor

Vermont State Colleges

P.O. Box 359

Waterbury, Vermont 05676

(802) 241-2520

FAX: 244-1746

 

President

University of Vermont

85 South Prospect Street

Burlington, Vermont 05401

(802) 656-3186

FAX: 656-8432

 

 

VIRGINIA

 

Director

State Council of Higher Education

101 North 14th Street

Richmond, Virginia 23219

(804) 225-2600

FAX: 225-2604

 

 

WASHINGTON

 

Executive Director

Higher Education Coordinating Board

917 Lakeridge Way, GV-11

Olympia, Washington 98504

(206) 753-3241

FAX: 753-1784

 

 

 

WEST VIRGINIA

 

Chancellor

State College System of West Virginia

1018 Kanawha Boulevard, East, Suite 700

Charleston, West Virginia 25301

(304) 348-0699

FAX: 348-0259

 

Chancellor

University of West Virginia System

1018 Kanawha Boulevard, East, Suite 700

Charleston, West Virginia 25301

(304) 558-2736

FAX: 558-3264

 

 

WISCONSIN

 

Higher Educational Aids Board

P.O. Box 7885

Madison, Wisconsin 53707

(608) 267-2206

 

President

University of Wisconsin System

1700 Van Hise Hall

1220 Linden Drive

Madison, Wisconsin 53706

(608) 262-2321

FAX: 263-2046

 

 

WYOMING

 

The Community College Commission

122 West 25th Street

Herschler Building, 2W

Cheyenne, WY 82002

(307) 777-7763

 

President

University of Wyoming

Box 3434

University Station

Laramie, WY 82071

(307) 766-4121

 

 

     This handbook was written by Elizabeth Eisner and

Valentina K. Tikoff, under the direction of Alan Ginsburg,

Bruno V. Manno, and Maureen A. McLaughlin. Barbara Gleason,

Daniel Goldenberg, David Goodwin, Dan Morrissey, Susan W. Wolf,

and Steven W. Zwillinger also contributed to the project.

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